New approaches to prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines for cervical cancer prevention.
ABSTRACT The currently licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are safe and highly effective at preventing HPV infection for a select number of papillomavirus types, thus decreasing the incidence of precursors to cervical cancer. It is expected that vaccination will also ultimately reduce the incidence of this cancer. The licensed HPV vaccines are, however, type restricted and expensive, and also require refrigeration, multiple doses and intramuscular injection. Second-generation vaccines are currently being developed to address these shortcomings. New expression systems, viral and bacterial vectors for HPV L1 capsid protein delivery, and use of the HPV L2 capsid protein will hopefully aid in decreasing cost and increasing ease of use and breadth of protection. These second-generation vaccines could also allow affordable immunization of women in developing countries, where the incidence of cervical cancer is high.