High-yield cell-free protein synthesis for site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids at two sites.
ABSTRACT Using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/suppressor tRNA pairs derived from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, an Escherichia coli cell-free protein production system affords proteins with site-specifically incorporated unnatural amino acids (UAAs) in high yields through the use of optimized amber suppressor tRNA(CUA)(opt) and optimization of reagent concentrations. The efficiency of the cell-free system allows the incorporation of trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine using a polyspecific synthetase evolved previously for p-cyano-phenylalanine, and the incorporation of UAAs at two different sites of the same protein without any re-engineering of the E. coli cells used to make the cell-free extract.
- SourceAvailable from: Frank Bernhard
Article: Cell-free expression-making a mark.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cell-free protein production opens new perspectives for the direct manipulation of expression compartments in combination with reduced complexity of physiological requirements. The technology is therefore in particular suitable for the general synthesis of difficult proteins including toxins and membrane proteins as well as for the analysis of their functional folding in artificial environments. A further key application of cell-free expression is the fast and economic labeling of proteins for structural and functional applications. Two extract sources, wheat embryos and Escherichia coli cells, are currently employed for the preparative scale cell-free production of proteins. Recent achievements in structural characterization include cell-free synthesized membrane proteins and even larger protein assemblies may become feasible.Current Opinion in Structural Biology 04/2013; · 8.74 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The anisotropic component of the magnetic susceptibility tensor (Δχ tensor) associated with various paramagnetic metal ions can induce pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in proteins, yielding valuable restraints in structural studies. In particular, PCSs have successfully been used to study ligands that bind to proteins tagged with a paramagnetic metal ion, which is of great interest in fragment-based drug design. To create easy-to-interpret PCSs, the metal ion must be attached to the protein in a rigid manner. Most of the existing methods for site-specific attachment of a metal tag, however, result in tethers with residual flexibility. Here we present model calculations to quantify the extent, to which mobility of the metal-binding tag can compromise the quality of the Δχ tensor that can be determined from the PCSs observed in the protein. Assuming that the protein can be approximated by a sphere and the tag is attached by a single tether, the results show that a single effective ∆χ tensor can describe the PCSs and RDCs of the protein spins very well even in the presence of substantial tag mobility, implying that PCSs of ligands in binding pockets of the protein can be predicted with similar accuracy. In contrast, the quality of the PCS prediction for nuclear spins positioned above the surface of the protein is significantly poorer, with implications for studies of protein-protein complexes. The simulations probed the sensitivity of the effective Δχ tensor to different parameters, including length of the tether between protein and metal ion, protein size, type and amplitude of tag motion, tensor orientation relative to the protein and direction of tag motion. Tether length and amplitude of motion were identified as two key parameters. It is shown that the amplitude of tag motions cannot be quantified by simple comparisons of the effective Δχ tensor with the alignment tensor determined from RDCs.Journal of Biomolecular NMR 05/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cell-free protein synthesis harnesses the synthetic power of biology, programming the ribosomal translational machinery of the cell to create macromolecular products. Like PCR, which uses cellular replication machinery to create a DNA amplifier, cell-free protein synthesis is emerging as a transformative technology with broad applications in protein engineering, biopharmaceutical development, and post-genomic research. By breaking free from the constraints of cell-based systems, it takes the next step towards synthetic biology. Recent advances in reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis (Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements expression systems) are creating new opportunities to tailor the reactions for specialized applications including in vitro protein evolution, printing protein microarrays, isotopic labeling, and incorporating nonnatural amino acids.Biotechnology Letters 10/2012; · 1.85 Impact Factor