Oxidatively induced DNA damage: Mechanisms, repair and disease.
ABSTRACT Endogenous and exogenous sources cause oxidatively induced DNA damage in living organisms by a variety of mechanisms. The resulting DNA lesions are mutagenic and, unless repaired, lead to a variety of mutations and consequently to genetic instability, which is a hallmark of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is repaired in living cells by different pathways that involve a large number of proteins. Unrepaired and accumulated DNA lesions may lead to disease processes including carcinogenesis. Mutations also occur in DNA repair genes, destabilizing the DNA repair system. A majority of cancer cell lines have somatic mutations in their DNA repair genes. In addition, polymorphisms in these genes constitute a risk factor for cancer. In general, defects in DNA repair are associated with cancer. Numerous DNA repair enzymes exist that possess different, but sometimes overlapping substrate specificities for removal of oxidatively induced DNA lesions. In addition to the role of DNA repair in carcinogenesis, recent evidence suggests that some types of tumors possess increased DNA repair capacity that may lead to therapy resistance. DNA repair pathways are drug targets to develop DNA repair inhibitors to increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. Oxidatively induced DNA lesions and DNA repair proteins may serve as potential biomarkers for early detection, cancer risk assessment, prognosis and for monitoring therapy. Taken together, a large body of accumulated evidence suggests that oxidatively induced DNA damage and its repair are important factors in the development of human cancers. Thus this field deserves more research to contribute to the development of cancer biomarkers, DNA repair inhibitors and treatment approaches to better understand and fight cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Some somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are thought to be pathogenic, leading to neurological disease. We hypothesized that heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein A1 (hnRNP A1), an autoantigen associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) would contain SNVs. MS patients develop antibodies to hnRNP A1 (293-304), an epitope within the M9 domain (AA (268-305)) of hnRNP A1. M9 is hnRNP A1's nucleocytoplasmic transport domain, which binds transportin-1 (TPNO-1) and allows for hnRNP A1's transport into and out of the nucleus. Genomic DNA sequencing of M9 revealed nine novel SNVs that resulted in an amino acid substitution in MS patients that were not present in controls. SNVs occurred within the TPNO-1 binding domain (hnRNP A1 (268-289)) and the MS IgG epitope (hnRNP A1 (293-304)), within M9. In contrast to the nuclear localization of wild type (WT) hnRNP A1, mutant hnRNP A1 mis-localized to the cytoplasm, co-localized with stress granules and caused cellular apoptosis. Whilst WT hnRNP A1 bound TPNO-1, mutant hnRNP A1 showed reduced TPNO-1 binding. These data suggest SNVs in hnRNP A1 might contribute to pathogenesis of MS.F1000Research. 01/2014; 3:132.
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ABSTRACT: It has recently become possible to rapidly and accurately detect epigenetic signatures in bacterial genomes using third generation sequencing data. Monitoring the speed at which a single polymerase inserts a base in the read strand enables one to infer whether a modification is present at that specific site on the template strand. These sites can be challenging to detect in the absence of high coverage and reliable reference genomes.BMC Bioinformatics 01/2014; 15 Suppl 9:S16. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Due to the importance of the identification of chemotherapy outcome prognostic factors, we attempted to establish the potential of oxidative stress/DNA damage parameters such as prognostic markers. The aim of the study was to determine whether platinum derivative-based chemotherapy in cancer patients (n = 66) is responsible for systemic oxidatively damaged DNA and whether damage biomarkers, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and the modified base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-Gua), in urine and DNA may be used as a prognostic factor for the outcome of chemotherapy. All the aforementioned modifications were analyzed using techniques involving high-performance liquid chromatography/electrochemical detection (HPLC/EC) or HPLC/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Among all the analyzed parameters, the significantly decreased levels of 8-oxo-Gua in urine collected from a subgroup of patients 24 h after the first infusion of the drug, as compared with the baseline levels, correlated with a significantly longer overall survival (OS) (60 months after therapy) than in the subgroup without any decrease of this parameter after therapy (median OS = 24 months, p = 0.007). Moreover, a significantly longer OS was also observed in a group with increased urine levels of 8-oxo-dG after chemotherapy (38.6 vs. 20.5 months, p = 0.03). The results of our study suggest that patients with decreased 8-oxo-Gua levels and increased 8-oxo-dG levels in urine 24 h after the first dose should be considered as better responders to the administered chemotherapy, with a lower risk of death. The conclusion may permit the use of these parameters as markers for predicting the clinical outcome of platinum derivative-based chemotherapy.Clinical and Experimental Medicine 10/2014; · 2.82 Impact Factor