Based on attachment theory, the construct of emotional availability and its assessment goes beyond attachment in important ways. Its origins in clinical experience and emotions research are discussed as well as the prospects for continuing advances in knowledge stimulated by the contributions in the Special Section. This is especially so in terms of developmental variations and the biological underpinnings of emotional availability. A major need and opportunity also exists concerning research related to psychopathology, clinical interventions, and training.
"The availability of emotional communication that includes range of emotions and the quality of positive and adaptive emotions are considered an essential aspect of the relationship and of parental nurturing and guidance.  The EA Scales have been used in more than 100 studies  with every age group including infants during the first year of life. Biringen and Easterbrooks  describe four adult components of emotional availability: Sensitivity (appropriate responsiveness and ability to handle conflicts in the relationship); Structuring (consistent, nonexcessive limit setting and guidance during the child's play); Nonintrusivness (age appropriate protectiveness of the child without overdirection or overstimulation); and Non-hostility (absence of impatient, angry, or bored facial or verbal behavior). "
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