Elicitation of Neutralizing Antibodies Directed against CD4-Induced Epitope(s) Using a CD4 Mimetic Cross-Linked to a HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 01/2012; 7(1):e30233. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030233
Source: PubMed


The identification of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) structures that can generate broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) is pivotal to the development of a successful vaccine against HIV-1 aimed at eliciting effective humoral immune responses. To that end, the production of novel Env structure(s) that might induce BNAbs by presentation of conserved epitopes, which are otherwise occluded, is critical. Here, we focus on a structure that stabilizes Env in a conformation representative of its primary (CD4) receptor-bound state, thereby exposing highly conserved "CD4 induced" (CD4i) epitope(s) known to be important for co-receptor binding and subsequent virus infection. A CD4-mimetic miniprotein, miniCD4 (M64U1-SH), was produced and covalently complexed to recombinant, trimeric gp140 envelope glycoprotein (gp140) using site-specific disulfide linkages. The resulting gp140-miniCD4 (gp140-S-S-M64U1) complex was recognized by CD4i antibodies and the HIV-1 co-receptor, CCR5. The gp140-miniCD4 complex elicited the highest titers of CD4i binding antibodies as well as enhanced neutralizing antibodies against Tier 1 viruses as compared to gp140 protein alone following immunization of rabbits. Neutralization against HIV-2(7312/V434M) and additional serum mapping confirm the specific elicitation of antibodies directed to the CD4i epitope(s). These results demonstrate the utility of structure-based approach in improving immunogenic response against specific region, such as the CD4i epitope(s) here, and its potential role in vaccine application.

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Available from: Loic Martin, Oct 13, 2015
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    • "To do so, we generated four SF162 gp120 mutants: gp120ΔV3 (to map reactivity to V3 loop), gp120ΔV1V2 (to map reactivity to V1V2 loop), gp120D368R (to map reactivity to CD4-binding site, CD4BS) [25]–[28] and gp120I420R (to map reactivity to CD4-induced, CD4i, site) [26]–[29]. These proteins were transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells and purified using the same protocol described for the gp120/gp140 immunogens. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ligand affinities can be optimized by interfacial cavity filling. A hollow (Phe43 cavity) between HIV-1 surface protein (gp120) and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) receptor, extends beyond residue phenylalanine 43 of CD4 and cannot be fully accessed by natural amino acids. To increase HIV-1 gp120 affinity for a family of CD4-mimetic miniproteins (miniCD4s), we targeted the gp120 Phe43 cavity with eleven non-natural phenylalanine derivatives, introduced into a miniCD4 named M48 (1). The best derivative named M48U12 (13) binds HIV-1 YU2 gp120 with 8 pM affinity, and shows potent HIV-1 neutralization. It contained a methylcyclohexyl derivative of 4-aminophenylalanine and its co-crystal structure with gp120 revealed the cyclohexane ring buried within the gp120 hydrophobic core but able to assume multiple orientations in the binding pocket, and an aniline nitrogen potentially providing a focus for further improvement. Altogether, the results provide a framework for filling the interfacial Phe43 cavity to enhance miniCD4 affinity.
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