ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly infiltrative tumor that typically has a central region of necrosis surrounded by contrast-enhancing proliferative tumor cells surrounded by diffuse isolated tumor cells that migrate into the brain. The goal of surgery is often directed toward the central necrotic region and the imaging-defined enhancing margin. To limit morbidity from removing functional brain tissue, the infiltrative tumor cells found in surrounding brain are generally not considered part of the surgical target. This is also the site where tumors recur after treatment. It is well accepted by most surgeons and neuro-oncologists that, when possible, aggressive resection of malignant gliomas is the preferred initial step in management. Although there are limited randomized prospective studies that address extent of resection and survival, the benefit of aggressive surgical resection will not be debated in this report. Tumor resection to the maximum extent that is safely possible can decrease tumor burden and thereby enhance the effects of adjuvant therapies, improve symptoms from mass effect, reduce the frequency of seizures, and provide tissue for pathological and genomic studies to better identify and test novel therapy.Surgery for glioblastoma is highly dependent on imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging can provide an anatomic definition of the lesion and functional capacity of critical cortical regions and allow for precise localization within the brain. The common use of stereotactic guidance, intraoperative imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and physiologic monitoring have enhanced the surgeon's ability to achieve aggressive tumor removal while protecting the patient from neurologic impairment. This review will address the use of these techniques as an important first step in managing patients with glioblastoma.
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ABSTRACT: Although conventional neuro-navigation is a useful tool for image-guided glioma surgery, there are some limitations, such as brain shift. We introduced our methods using an identifiable marker, a "tailed bullet", to overcome the limitation of conventional neuro-navigation. A tailed bullet is an identifiable tumor location marker that determines the extent of a resection and we have introduced our technique and reviewed the clinical results. We have developed and used "tailed bullets" for brain tumor surgery. They were inserted into the brain parenchyma or the tumor itself to help identify the margin of tumor. We retrospectively reviewed surgically resected glioma cases using "tailed bullet". Total 110 gliomas included in this study and it contains WHO grade 2, 3, and 4 glioma was 14, 36, and 60 cases, respectively. Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 71 patients (64.5%), subtotal resection in 36 patients (32.7%), and partial resection in 3 patients (2.7%). The overall survival (OS) duration of grade 3 and 4 gliomas were 20.9 (range, 1.2-82.4) and 13.6 months (range, 1.4-173.4), respectively. Extent of resection (GTR), younger age, and higher initial Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score were related to longer OS for grade-4 gliomas. There was no significant adverse event directly related to the use of tailed bullets. Considering the limitations of conventional neuro-navigation methods, the tailed bullets could be helpful during glioma resection. We believe this simple method is an easily accessible technique and overcomes the limitation of the brain shift from the conventional neuro-navigation. Further studies are needed to verify the clinical benefits of using tailed bullets.Yonsei Medical Journal 03/2015; 56(2):388-96. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.2.388 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the current trends in optical imaging to guide oncologic surgery. Surgical resection remains the cornerstone of therapy for patients with early stage solid malignancies and more than half of all patients with cancer undergo surgery each year. The technical ability of the surgeon to obtain clear surgical margins at the initial resection remains crucial to improve overall survival and long-term morbidity. Current resection techniques are largely based on subjective and subtle changes associated with tissue distortion by invasive cancer. As a result, positive surgical margins occur in a significant portion of tumor resections, which is directly correlated with a poor outcome. A comprehensive review of studies evaluating optical imaging techniques is performed. A variety of cancer imaging techniques have been adapted or developed for intraoperative surgical guidance that have been shown to improve functional and oncologic outcomes in randomized clinical trials. There are also a large number of novel, cancer-specific contrast agents that are in early stage clinical trials and preclinical development that demonstrate significant promise to improve real-time detection of subclinical cancer in the operative setting. There has been an explosion of intraoperative imaging techniques that will become more widespread in the next decade.Annals of Surgery 01/2015; 261(1):46-55. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000622 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in the treatment of solid tumors, there are few effective treatments for malignant gliomas due to the infiltrative nature, and the protective shield of blood-brain barrier or blood-tumor barriers that restrict the passage of chemotherapy drugs into the brain. Imaging techniques, such as PET and MRI, have allowed the assessment of tumor function in vivo, but they are indirect measures of activity and do not easily allow continuous repeated evaluations. Because the biology of glioma on a cellular and molecular level is fairly unknown, especially in relation to various treatments, the development of novel therapeutic approaches to this devastating condition requires a strong need for a deeper understanding of the tumor's pathophysiology and biochemistry. Cerebral microdialysis, a probe-based sampling technique, allows a discrete volume of the brain to be sampled for neurochemical analysis of neurotransmitters, metabolites, biomarkers, and chemotherapy drugs, which has been employed in studying brain tumors, and is significant for improving the treatment of glioma. In this review, the current concepts of cerebral microdialysis for glioma are elucidated, with a special emphasis on its application to neurochemistry and pharmacokinetic studies.Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 03/2014; 96C:77-89. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2014.03.026 · 2.83 Impact Factor