Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific, and central and South America

The Kirby Institute, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Journal of the International AIDS Society (Impact Factor: 4.21). 01/2012; 15(1):5. DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-15-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective was to examine the short-term risk and predictors of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients from the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration.
Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin of < 10 g/dL. Patients were included if they started cART with three or more drugs, had prior haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL, and had one or more follow-up haemoglobin tests. Factors associated with anaemia up to 12 months were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by IeDEA region.
Between 1998 and 2008, 19,947 patients initiated cART with baseline and follow-up haemoglobin tests (7358, 7289, 2853, 471, 1550 and 426 in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively). At initiation, anaemia was found in 45% of Western Africa patients, 29% of Eastern Africa patients, 21% of Southern Africa patients, 36% of Central Africa patients, 15% of patients in Asian-Pacific and 14% of patients in Caribbean and Central and South America. Among patients with haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL at baseline (13,445), the risks of anaemia were 18.2, 6.6, 9.7, 22.9, 11.8 and 19.5 per 100 person-years in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively. Factors associated with anaemia were female sex, low baseline haemoglobin level, low baseline CD4 count, more advanced disease stage, and initial cART containing zidovudine.
In data from 34 cohorts of HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, and Asia, the risk of anaemia within 12 months of initiating cART was moderate. Routine haemoglobin monitoring was recommended in patients at risk of developing anaemia following cART initiation.

Download full-text


Available from: Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Aug 11, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: Zidovudine (AZT) is recommended for first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings. AZT may, however, lead to anemia and impaired immunological response. We compared CD4 counts over 5 years between patients starting ART with and without AZT in Southern Africa. DESIGN:: Cohort study. METHODS:: Patients aged ≥16 years who started first-line ART in South Africa, Botswana, Zambia or Lesotho were included. We used linear mixed-effect models to compare CD4 cell count trajectories between patients on AZT-containing regimens and patients on other regimens, censoring follow-up at first treatment change. Impaired immunological recovery, defined as a CD4 count below 100 cells/μl at 1 year, was assessed in logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for baseline CD4 count and haemoglobin level, age, gender, type of regimen, viral load monitoring and calendar year. RESULTS:: 72 597 patients starting ART, including 19 758 (27.2%) on AZT, were analysed. Patients on AZT had higher CD4 cell counts (150 vs.128 cells/μl) and haemoglobin level (12.0 vs. 11.0 g/dl) at baseline, and were less likely to be female than those on other regimens. Adjusted differences in CD4 counts between regimens containing and not containing AZT were -16 cells/μl (95% CI -18 to -14) at 1 year and -56 cells/μl (95% CI -59 to -52) at 5 years. Impaired immunological recovery was more likely with AZT compared to other regimens (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.22-1.61). CONCLUSIONS:: In Southern Africa AZT is associated with inferior immunological recovery compared to other backbones. Replacing AZT with another NRTI could avoid unnecessary switches to second-line ART.
    AIDS 01/2013; DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328362d887 · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anemia is the main concern among patients using a zidovudine (AZT)-based antiretroviral treatment (ART). Some studies suggested weight-adjusted AZT dosing as a way to reduce toxicity. We analyzed the risk factors associated with AZT-induced anemia in a cohort using AZT as substitution for stavudine (D4T). We retrospectively studied HIV-infected patients in a referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2003 and 2011. Factors associated with AZT-related anemia requiring AZT-discontinuation within the first year after AZT initiation were analyzed using Cox regression. Overall, 1180 patients, 60.5% female, were included. At AZT initiation, the median hemoglobin was 12.7 g/dL (IQR 11.7-13.9), the median weight: 51 kg (IQR 45-58) and the median time on ART prior to AZT substitution: 1.4 years (IQR 1.0-2.0). Within one year follow-up, 139 patients (11.8%) developed anemia requiring AZT discontinuation. Overall, there was no independent association of body weight with AZT discontinuation. AZT discontinuation was associated with lower hemoglobin level when starting AZT; older age and taking D4T-based ART less than one year prior to AZT. In exploratory analysis, a linear increase in risk of grade 2-4 anemia with lower body weight was seen if starting AZT substitution within less than one year of D4T-based ART. Our findings argue against the need of weight-based dosing of AZT to reduce anemia among patients using AZT as substitution for D4T. Whether this also applies to ART-naïve individuals remains to be assessed. Future studies with AZT dose reduction should assess efficacy and overall tolerance of AZT.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e60206. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060206 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among those with HIV, anemia is a strong risk factor for disease progression and death independent of CD4 count and viral load. Understanding the role of anemia in HIV treatment is critical to developing strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. We conducted a prospective analysis among 10,259 HIV-infected adults initiating first-line ART between April 2004 and August 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The prevalence of anemia at ART initiation was 25.8%. Mean hemoglobin increased independent of baseline CD4. Females, lower BMI, WHO stage III/IV, lower CD4 count, and zidovudine use were associated with increased risk of developing anemia during follow-up. After initiation of ART, hemoglobin improved, regardless of regimen type and the degree of immunosuppression. Between 0 and 6 months on ART, the magnitude of hemoglobin increase was linearly related to CD4 count. However, between 6 and 24 months on ART, hemoglobin levels showed a sustained overall increase, the magnitude of which was similar regardless of baseline CD4 level. This increase in hemoglobin was seen even among patients on zidovudine containing regimens. Since low hemoglobin is an established adverse prognostic marker, prompt identification of anemia may result in improved morbidity and mortality of patients initiating ART.
    Journal of Tropical Medicine 08/2013; 2013:162950. DOI:10.1155/2013/162950
Show more