Increased non-prostate cancer death risk in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the cause-specific mortality unrelated to prostate cancer (PC) itself in patients with screen-and clinically diagnosed PC. PATIENTS AND METHODS The present study was conducted among participants of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Based on consensus of the causes of death committee (CODC), all patients who died from PC were excluded. In the intervention arm, cases were patients with a screen-detected PC, aged 55-74 years, between 1993 and 2001. These cases were matched to two controls in whom no cancer was found after biopsy, and two controls in whom no cancer was suspected after screening. In the control arm, cases were patients with clinically diagnosed PC, aged 55-74 years, between 1993 and 2001. These cases were matched to four controls without PC. Matching was done with respect to date of birth, screening and/or diagnosis. Men were followed up to 31 December 2007. RESULTS No statistically significant difference in overall mortality between cases and controls in the intervention arm was observed: relative risk (RR) 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.65; P = 0.102) and RR 1.13 (95% CI 0.86-1.47; P = 0.381). In the control arm, the overall mortality was statistically significantly higher in cases relative to controls: RR 1.43 (95% CI 1.03-2.00; P = 0.033). This difference was because of an increased risk of dying from neoplasms and disease of the circulatory or respiratory system among cases: RR 1.61 (95% CI 1.12-2.29; P = 0.009). The present study was limited by the relatively small sample size. CONCLUSIONS Increased mortality unrelated to PC itself was observed in men with clinically diagnosed PC, but not in screen-detected PC. The excess mortality in men with clinically diagnosed PC seems to be as a result of a significantly increased risk of dying from neoplasm and disease of the circulatory or respiratory system. Results have to be studied more thoroughly in further clinical trials.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Fritz H Schröder, Jan 01, 2014
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ABSTRACT: We previously found that statin users had a lower risk of advanced and possibly high-grade prostate cancer compared with nonusers. We hypothesize that statins' effects on cholesterol synthesis may explain those findings because prostate cancer cells exhibit cholesterol dysregulation. Thus, we investigated whether low plasma cholesterol is associated with prostate cancer overall and by stage and grade. Participants were drawn from the 18,018 members of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who provided blood in 1993-1995. We ascertained 698 incident cases through January 2000. Controls were 698 men who had a PSA test and were matched to cases. Plasma cholesterol was measured enzymatically. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable ORs and 95% CIs of total, clinically organ-confined (n = 518), advanced (T3b or worse; n = 61), low-grade (Gleason sum < 7; n = 386) and high-grade (Gleason sum > or = 7, n = 247) disease. Low cholesterol (<25th percentile vs. > or =25th percentile) was not associated with total (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.72-1.20), organ-confined (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.64-1.18) or low-grade (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.75-1.51) disease. However, men with low cholesterol had a lower risk of high-grade disease (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39-0.98), especially if organ-confined (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.99). The association for advanced disease appeared inverse, but number of cases was small (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.13-1.36). Associations remained after excluding cholesterol-lowering drug users. These results coupled with prior statin findings suggest that mechanistic studies on cholesterol metabolism should be pursued to understand a possible target for preventing poorly differentiated prostate cancers.International Journal of Cancer 10/2008; 123(7):1693-8. DOI:10.1002/ijc.23715 · 5.09 Impact Factor
- BJU International 01/2004; 92 Suppl 2(2):117-22. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2003.4698x.x · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Results from recent studies on the effects of beta1-blockade in patients with heart failure demonstrated a 34% reduction in total mortality. However, the effect of beta1-blockade on the frequency of hospitalizations, symptoms, and quality of life in patients with heart failure has not been fully explored. To examine the effects of the beta1-blocker controlled-release/extended-release metoprolol succinate (metoprolol CR/XL) on mortality, hospitalization, symptoms, and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Randomized, double-blind controlled trial, preceded by a 2-week single-blind placebo run-in period, conducted from February 14, 1997, to October 31, 1998, with a mean follow-up of 1 year. Three hundred thirteen sites in 14 countries. Patients (n = 3991) with chronic heart failure, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II to IV, and ejection fraction of 0.40 or less who were stabilized with optimum standard therapy. Patients were randomized to metoprolol CR/XL, 25 mg once per day (NYHA class II), or 12.5 mg once per day (NYHA class III or IV), titrated for 6 to 8 weeks up to a target dosage of 200 mg once per day (n = 1990); or matching placebo (n = 2001). Total mortality or any hospitalization (time to first event), number of hospitalizations for worsening heart failure, and change in NYHA class, by intervention group; quality of life was assessed in a substudy of 741 patients. The incidence of all predefined end points was lower in the metoprolol CR/XL group than in the placebo group, including total mortality or all-cause hospitalizations (the prespecified second primary end point; 641 vs 767 events; risk reduction, 19%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10%-27%; P<.001); total mortality or hospitalizations due to worsening heart failure (311 vs 439 events; risk reduction, 31%; 95% CI, 20%-40%; P<.001), number of hospitalizations due to worsening heart failure (317 vs 451; P<.001); and number of days in hospital due to worsening heart failure (3401 vs 5303 days; P<.001). NYHA functional class, assessed by physicians, and McMaster Overall Treatment Evaluation score, assessed by patients, both improved in the metoprolol CR/XL group compared with the placebo group (P = .003 and P = .009, respectively). In this study of patients with symptomatic heartfailure, metoprolol CR/XL improved survival, reduced the need for hospitalizations due to worsening heart failure, improved NYHA functional class, and had beneficial effects on patient well-being.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 03/2000; 283(10):1295-302. · 35.29 Impact Factor