Recent advances in cell therapies have provided potential opportunities for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). We investigated whether human kidney structures could be preformed in vitro for subsequent implantation in vivo to maximize tissue-forming efficiency.
Human renal cells were isolated from unused donor kidneys. Human renal cells were cultured and expanded. Migration was analyzed using growth factors. To form structures, cells were placed in a three-dimensional culture system. Cells were characterized by immunofluorescence, western blots and fluorescence-activated cell sorting using renal cell-specific markers for podocin, proximal and distal tubules and collecting ducts. An albumin uptake assay was used to analyze function. Three-dimensional cultures were implanted into athymic rat kidneys to evaluate survival.
Human renal cells were effectively expanded in culture and retained their phenotype, migration ability and albumin uptake functions. Human renal cell in three-dimensional culture-formed tubules, which stained positively for proximal, distal tubule and collecting duct markers, and this was confirmed by western blot. Polarity of the tubular cells was determined by the presence of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Na-K ATPase. Colocalization of labeled albumin and proximal tubule markers proved functionality and specificity of the newly formed tubules. An in vivo study showed that cells survived in the kidney for up to 6 weeks.
These findings demonstrate that human renal cell grown in three-dimensional culture are able to generate kidney structures in vitro. This system may ultimately be developed into an efficient cell-based therapy for patients with CKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New therapeutic strategies for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are necessary to offset the rising incidence of CKD and donor shortage. Erythropoietin (EPO), a cytokine produced by fibroblast-like cells in the kidney, has recently emerged as a renoprotective factor with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties. This study (a) determined whether human renal cultures (human primary kidney cells [hPKC]) can be enriched in EPO-positive cells (hPKC(F+)) by using magnetic-bead sorting; (b) characterized hPKC(F+) following cell separation; and (c) established that intrarenal delivery of enriched hPKC(F+) cells would be more beneficial in treatment of renal injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress than unsorted hPKC cultures in a chronic kidney injury model. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed higher expression of EPO (36%) and CD73 (27%) in hPKC(F+) as compared with hPKC. After induction of renal injury, intrarenal delivery of hPKC(F+) or hPKC significantly reduced serum creatinine, interstitial fibrosis in the medulla, and abundance of CD68-positive cells in the cortex and medulla (p < .05). However, only hPKC(F+) attenuated interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex and decreased urinary albumin (3.5-fold) and urinary tubular injury marker kidney injury molecule 1 (16-fold). hPKC(F+) also significantly reduced levels of renal cortical monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (1.8-fold) and oxidative DNA marker 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (2.4-fold). After 12 weeks, we detected few injected cells, which were localized mostly to the cortical interstitium. Although cell therapy with either hPKC(F+) or hPKC improved renal function, the hPKC(F+) subpopulation provides greater renoprotection, perhaps through attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. We conclude that hPKC(F+) may be used as components of cell-based therapies for degenerative kidney diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methodologies for the rigorous and quantitative evaluation of biological activity or potency are an essential aspect of the developmental pathway for all biologic product candidates. Such assays typically leverage key mechanistic pathways demonstrated to mediate observed therapeutic outcomes. Tissue engineered/regenerative medicine (TE/RM) therapeutics include cell based therapies as well as engineered tissues and neo-organs for which clarity regarding the mechanism or mechanisms of action may not be forthcoming. Here, we discuss how strategies for the development of potency assays for TE/RM product candidates may harness potential mechanisms of action or other therapeutically relevant bioactivity along with cell number and viability. As the pipeline for TE/RM product candidates expands through 2014 and beyond, the establishment of a defined framework for potency assays will facilitate successful translational outcomes.
Trends in Biotechnology 08/2013; 31(9). DOI:10.1016/j.tibtech.2013.05.007 · 11.96 Impact Factor
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