Are biofilms associated with an inflammatory response in chronic rhinosinusitis?
ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms have been identified on the sinonasal mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) but also on control samples. Their role in the disease pathogenesis is unproven. The objective of this study was to further evaluate the role of biofilms in CRS by assessing whether they are associated with an inflammatory response.
Mucosal samples were collected from 18 patients with CRS and 7 normal subjects. Bacteria on the mucosal surface were identified by Gram stain. Immune cells were identified by Giemsa stain and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The number of local immune cells was recorded beneath areas of the mucosal surface both colonized with and free from bacteria.
In CRS patients, biofilms that were directly opposed to a disrupted epithelial layer were associated with more T lymphocytes (p = 0.01), and more macrophages (p = 0.003) than areas of mucosa without bacteria present. Biofilms associated with but not directly opposed to the epithelium were not associated with raised numbers of immune cells.
Not all surface bacterial colonies are associated with a particular inflammatory response in CRS. Biofilms adherent to a disrupted epithelial layer are associated with higher numbers of immune cells and therefore appear to have a role in the pathogenesis of CRS.
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ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of the sinonasal epithelium may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) including recurrent acute rhinosinusitis (RARS). Mutations in connexin 32 and 43 proteins have been associated with a number of human diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of mutations in connexin 32 or connexin 43 genes in CRS and RARS. Prospective case series of 19 patients with CRS and /or RARS. Clinical and demographic factors were noted and buccal swabs were collected for DNA sequencing of connexin 32 and connexin 43 genes. One patient was found to have a conservative V193I mutation in the connexin 32 gene. Connexin 43 mutations were found in two patients - a silent R239R mutation and an AAA insertion after the stop codon in the 3' UTR. None of these mutations are associated with any known diseases or predicted to lead to protein dysfunction. Mutations in connexin 32 or 43 genes in patients with CRS, including RARS, appear to be rare. The etiologic role of connexin mutations in chromic rhinosinusitis is suspect, and routine sequencing for connexin mutations in patients with RARS or CRS is not cost effective.American journal of otolaryngology 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.08.008 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nasal polyps and hypertrophic lower nasal conchae are common disorders of nasal cavity. The majority of etiopathogenetic theories indicate inflammatory background of polyps and hypertrophic concha. N-acetyl-β-d-hexosaminidase and β-glucuronidase are lysosomal exoglycosidases revealing accelerated activity in inflammatory processes. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates in nasal polyps and hypertrophic nasal concha basing on the activity of N-acetyl-β-d-hexosaminidase (HEX) and β-glucuronidase (GLU). Material and methods: Material consisted of nasal polyps taken from 40 patients during polypectomy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and hypertrophic lower nasal conchae taken from 20 patients during mucotomy. The activity of HEX, HEX A, HEX B and GLU in supernatant of homogenates of nasal polyps and hypertrophic lower nasal concha tissues has been estimated using colorimetric method. Results: Statistically significant decrease has been observed in concentration of the activity (per 1mg of tissue) of HEX (p<0.05), HEX B (p<0.001) and specific activity (per 1mg of protein) of HEX B (p<0.001) in nasal polyps tissue in comparison to hypertrophic lower nasal conchae tissue. Conclusions: Decrease in the activity and specific activity concentration of the majority of examined lysosomal exoglycosidases (increasing in inflammations) in comparison to hypertrophic lower nasal conchae suggests electrolytes disorders and questions the inflammatory background of nasal polyps.Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology 01/2014; 68(1):20-4. DOI:10.1016/j.otpol.2013.06.005
Article: ICON: chronic rhinosinusitis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a public health problem that has a significant socio-economic impact. Moreover, the complexity of this disease due to its heterogeneous nature based on the underlying pathophysiology - leading to different disease variants - further complicates our understanding and directions for the most appropriate targeted treatment strategies. Several International/national guidelines/position papers and/or consensus documents are available that present the current knowledge and treatment strategies for CRS. Yet there are many challenges to the management of CRS especially in the case of the more severe and refractory forms of disease. Therefore, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), a collaboration between EAACI, AAAAI, ACAAI, and WAO, has decided to propose an International Consensus (ICON) on Chronic Rhinosinusitis. The purpose of this ICON on CRS is to highlight the key common messages from the existing guidelines, the differences in recommendations as well as the gaps in our current knowledge of CRS, thus providing a concise reference. In this document we discuss the definition of the disease, its relevance, pharmacoeconomics, pathophysiology, phenotypes and endotypes, genetics and risk factors, natural history and co-morbidities as well as clinical manifestations and treatment options in both adults and children comprising pharmacotherapy, surgical interventions and more recent biological approaches. Finally, we have also highlighted the unmet needs that wait to be addressed through future research.World Allergy Organization Journal 01/2014; 7(1):25. DOI:10.1186/1939-4551-7-25