APC/C-mediated multiple monoubiquitylation provides an alternative degradation signal for cyclin B1.

Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Nature Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 20.06). 02/2012; 14(2):168-76. DOI: 10.1038/ncb2425
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) initiates mitotic exit by ubiquitylating cell-cycle regulators such as cyclin B1 and securin. Lys 48-linked ubiquitin chains represent the canonical signal targeting proteins for degradation by the proteasome, but they are not required for the degradation of cyclin B1. Lys 11-linked ubiquitin chains have been implicated in degradation of APC/C substrates, but the Lys 11-chain-forming E2 UBE2S is not essential for mitotic exit, raising questions about the nature of the ubiquitin signal that targets APC/C substrates for degradation. Here we demonstrate that multiple monoubiquitylation of cyclin B1, catalysed by UBCH10 or UBC4/5, is sufficient to target cyclin B1 for destruction by the proteasome. When the number of ubiquitylatable lysines in cyclin B1 is restricted, Lys 11-linked ubiquitin polymers elaborated by UBE2S become increasingly important. We therefore explain how a substrate that contains multiple ubiquitin acceptor sites confers flexibility in the requirement for particular E2 enzymes in modulating the rate of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric complex that functions as a RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate ordered transitions through the cell cycle. It does so by controlling the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of cell cycle proteins, notably cyclins and securins, whose degradation triggers sister chromatid disjunction and mitotic exit. Regulation of APC/C activity and modulation of its substrate specificity are subject to intricate cell cycle checkpoints and control mechanisms involving the switching of substrate-specifying cofactors, association of regulatory protein complexes and post-translational modifications. This review discusses the recent progress towards understanding the overall architecture of the APC/C, the molecular basis for degron recognition and ubiquitin chain synthesis, and how these activities are regulated.
    Current Opinion in Structural Biology 12/2014; 29:1–9. · 8.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In vertebrates, unfertilized eggs are arrested at metaphase of meiosis II by Emi2, a direct inhibitor of the APC/C ubiquitin ligase. Two different ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, UbcH10 and Ube2S, work with the APC/C to target APC/C substrates for degradation. However, their possible roles and regulations in unfertilized/fertilized eggs are not known. Here we use Xenopus egg extracts to show that both UbcH10 and Ube2S are required for rapid cyclin B degradation at fertilization, when APC/C binding of Ube2S, but not of UbcH10, increases several fold, coincidently with (SCF(β-TrCP)-dependent) Emi2 degradation. Interestingly, before fertilization, Emi2 directly inhibits APC/C-Ube2S binding via the C-terminal tail, but on fertilization, its degradation allows the binding mediated by the Ube2S C-terminal tail. Significantly, Emi2 and Ube2S bind commonly to the APC/C catalytic subunit APC10 via their similar C-terminal tails. Thus, Emi2 competitively inhibits APC/C-Ube2S binding before fertilization, while its degradation on fertilization relieves the inhibition for APC/C activation.
    Nature Communications 04/2014; 5:3667. · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a pivotal role in the sequence of events leading to cell division known as the cell cycle. Not only does ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis constitute a critical component of the core oscillator that drives the cell cycle in all eukaryotes, it is also central to the mechanisms that insure that the integrity of the genome is maintained. These functions are primarily carried out by two families of E3 ubiquitin ligases, the Skp/cullin/F-box-containing and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome complexes. However, beyond those functions associated with regulation of central cell cycle events, many peripheral cell cycle-related processes rely on ubiquitylation for signaling, homeostasis, and dynamicity, involving additional types of ubiquitin ligases and regulators. We are only beginning to understand the diversity and complexity of this regulation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 82 is June 02, 2013. Please see for revised estimates.
    Annual review of biochemistry 03/2013; · 29.88 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014