Failure to detect the sphenoidal segment of the middle cerebral artery (M1) on transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) results from either M1 occlusion or an insufficient temporal bone window (TBW). We sought to identify a simple indicator on B mode images for M1 evaluation.
Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients with an intact M1 segment underwent prospective TCCS evaluation. Visibilities of the contralateral temporal bone (CTB), midbrain (MB) and lesser sphenoid wing (LSW) on B mode images were defined as follows: 'invisible', 'poor' if the contour was less than 50% visible, 'fair' if more than 50% visible and 'good' if totally visible. M1 detectability on color Doppler images was defined as follows: 'INVISIBLE', 'POOR' if the M1 was detected as color dots, 'FAIR' if linearly but discontinuously detectable, and 'GOOD' if linearly and continuously detectable. The relationship between each structure's visibility and M1 detectability was assessed.
Seventy-six patients with 152 TBWs were evaluated. The CTB was 'invisible' in 2%, 'poor' in 22%, 'fair' in 36% and 'good' in 40%. Visibility of the MB was 36, 24, 26 and 14%, respectively. Visibility of the LSW was 16, 22, 29 and 32%, respectively. The M1 was 'INVISIBLE' in 51%, 'POOR' in 7%, 'FAIR' in 7% and 'GOOD' in 35%. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between each structure's visibility and M1 detectability was 0.68 for the CTB, 0.66 for the MB and 0.80 for the LSW, respectively (p < 0.001 for all).
Visibility of the LSW on B mode appears to be a better indicator than other structures for M1 evaluation.
"Detectability of A2 segment of the ACA and V3 segment of the VA is an advantage. Furthermore, unavailability of sufficient bone window can also be detected promptly by the sonic appearance of the contralateral skull band and ipsilateral planum temporale on B-mode imaging (Suzuki et al. 2012). TCDI, albeit not considered as the firstline imaging modality, can be used to diagnose and determine of size of intracerebral space occupying lesions including intracerebral hemorrhages and monitor of the midline shift caused by these lesions (Becker et al. 1993; Gerriets et al. 1999). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Albeit no direct anatomical information can be obtained, neurosonological methods provide real-time determination of velocity, and spectral waveform of blood flow in basal intracranial arteries adds significant benefit to the care of the patients with neurovascular diseases. Several features, such as relative simplicity in terms of interpretation and performance, significantly low cost, totally non-invasiveness, portability, and excellent temporal resolution, make neurosonology increasingly popular tool for evaluation, planning, and monitoring of treatment, and for determining prognosis in various neurovascular diseases. Usefulness of transcranial Doppler in diagnosing/monitoring subarachnoid hemorrhage related vasospasm and sickle cell vasculopathy is already well known. Utility in diagnosis of intracranial arterial stenosis, acute occlusion and recanalization, intracranial hemodynamic effect of the cervical arterial pathologies, intracranial pressure increase, and cerebral circulatory arrest are also well established. Neurosonological determination of vasomotor reactivity, cerebral autoregulation, neurovascular coupling, and micro-embolic signals detection are useful in the assessment of stroke risk, diagnosis of right-to-left shunting, and monitoring during surgery and interventional procedures. Transcranial Doppler is also an evolving ultrasound method with a therapeutic potential such as augmentation of clot lysis and cerebral delivery of thrombolytic or neuroprotective agent loaded nanobubbles in neurovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to give an overview of current usage of the different ultrasound modalities in different neurovascular diseases.
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