Clinical and molecular features of human rhinovirus C

Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792, USA.
Microbes and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.73). 01/2012; 14(6):485-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2011.12.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A newly discovered group of human rhinoviruses (HRVs) has been classified as the HRV-C species based on distinct genomic features. HRV-Cs circulate worldwide, and are important causes of upper and lower respiratory illnesses. Methods to culture and produce these viruses have recently been developed, and should enable identification of unique features of HRV-C replication and biology.

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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are recognized as a cause of upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARI). The circulating species and their clinical impact were not described in Argentina.Objectives To describe the molecular epidemiology of HRV in children and to determine the association of HRV species with outcome and severity.Study design: Hospitalized and outpatients children <6 years old with ARI without comorbidities (n = 620) were enrolled (2008–2010). Demographic, clinical data and outcome were analyzed. HRV were identified by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis and demographic reconstruction for HRV were performed in selected samples.ResultsHRV were detected in 252/620 (40.6%) of children; 8.5% in viral coinfection. Bronchiolitis (55%) and pneumonia (13%) were the most frequent clinical diagnosis. Of 202 inpatients with HRV: 72% required oxygen supplementation, 11% intensive care unit and 3% mechanical ventilation. HRV were identified as a risk factor for hospitalization (OR: 2.47).All three HRV species were detected being HRV-A (55%) and HRV-C (43%) the most frequent; HRV-B was infrequent (2%). Of 44 sequenced HRV, 30 genotypes were detected. Seven of them were the most prevalent and circulated during limited periods of time. The demographic reconstruction revealed a constant population size and a high turnover rate of genotypes. Demographic and clinical outcome were similar for HRV-A and HRV-C infections.Conclusion This study highlights the clinical impact of HRV in children without comorbidities as a cause of lower ARI and hospitalization. The high frequency of HRV infections may be associated with the simultaneous circulation of genotypes and their high turnover rate.
    Journal of Clinical Virology 10/2014; 61(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.10.006 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. to characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18 years. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11HRV-B, and 19HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (P trend=0.01). among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 03/2015; 64:74-82. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2015.01.007 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Causative agents for more than 30 percent of respiratory infections remain unidentified, suggesting that unknown respiratory pathogens might be involved. In this study, antibody capture VIDISCA-454 (virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing) resulted in the discovery of a novel type of rhinovirus C (RV-C). The virus has an RNA genome of at least 7054 nt and carries the characteristics of rhinovirus C species. The gene encoding viral protein 1, which is used for typing, has only 81% nucleotide sequence identity with the closest known RV-C type, and, therefore, the virus represents the first member of a novel type, named RV-C54
    Viruses 01/2015; 7(1-1):239-251. DOI:10.3390/v7010239 · 3.28 Impact Factor


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