Article

Youths with ADHD with and without tic disorders: comorbid psychopathology, executive function and social adjustment.

Department of Psychiatry, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan.
Research in developmental disabilities (Impact Factor: 4.41). 05/2012; 33(3):951-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.01.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical needs. This matched case-control study compared three groups (n=40 each) of youths aged between 8 and 16 years: ADHD with co-occurring TD (ADHD+TD), ADHD without TD (ADHD-TD) and typically developing community controls. Both ADHD groups had more co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder than the control group, and the presence of TD was associated with more anxiety disorders. TD did not impose additional executive function impairments or social adjustment difficulties on ADHD. Interestingly, for youths with ADHD, the presence of TD was associated with less interpersonal difficulties at school, compared to those without TD. The potential various directions of effects from co-occurring TD should be carefully evaluated and investigated for youths with ADHD.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
150 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives : This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and neuropsychological profiles of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their siblings. Methods : Eighteen children (age years, 12 boys) with ADHD and their 18 siblings (age years, 8 boys) completed Continuous Performance (CPT), Stroop, Children's Trail Making, Rey-Kim Memory, and Kim's Frontal Executive Function tasks. The parents of these subjects underwent the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ARS), 10-item Parent General Behavior Inventory (P-GBI), and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Paired t-tests were used. Results : The inattention (p=.020), and hyperactivity-impulsivity (p=.001), scores of the ARS and the P-GBI score (p=.004) were significantly higher in children with ADHD than in their siblings. Deficits in social communication and motivation on SRS were higher in children with ADHD than in their siblings (p=.017 and p=.011, respectively). Z-scores of omission and commission errors as well as response time variability on visual CPT and omission errors on auditory CPT were in clinically significant range, and z-score of omission errors on auditory CPT was in borderline range in siblings. Omission (p=.018) and commission errors on Visual CPT (p=.007) were significantly higher in children with ADHD compared to their siblings. Recognition efficiency on Kim's Frontal Executive Function Task was lower in children with ADHD compared to their siblings, but in normal range in both groups. Stroop interference and figure fluency on Kims Frontal Executive Function Task were in borderline range in ADHD group, and figure fluency was in borderline range in siblings. Conclusion : Our results support a preliminary evidence for mild degree of attention deficit in ADHD siblings. Further studies are needed to examine the cognitive functions of siblings with ADHD in larger samples.
    10/2013; 24(4). DOI:10.5765/jkacap.2013.24.4.220
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to have social dysfunction at school. The authors explored the role of key executive functions (EF, i.e., spatial working memory and spatial planning) on school and peer functions in 511 youths with persistent ADHD according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and 124 non-ADHD controls without any EF deficits. All the participants were assessed by a semi-structured psychiatric interview to confirm their previous and current diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders and by the Spatial Working Memory (SWM) and Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) tasks. The participants and their parents reported the participants’ school functions and peer relationships. There were three ADHD subgroups: (1) ADHD with deficits in both SWM and SOC tasks (n = 121); (2) ADHD with deficit in either SWM or SOC task (n = 185); (3) ADHD without deficits in SWM or SOC task (n = 205). All the three ADHD groups, regardless of EF deficits, had lower school grade, poorer attitude toward school work, poorer school interactions, more behavioral problems at school, and more severe problems in peer relationships than non-ADHD controls. Multivariate analyses revealed positive associations between deficit in the SWM task and school and peer dysfunctions, and between deficits in the SOC task and impaired peer interactions. Older age and psychiatric comorbidity also contributed to increased risk of school and peer dysfunctions. Our findings suggest that deficits in EF, such as spatial working memory and planning, might be associated with school and peer dysfunctions.
    Research in developmental disabilities 05/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.02.010 · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and post traumatic stress disorders for both parents, and in general anxiety disorder and agoraphobia for mothers. These associations were irrespective of child's autistic tendency, spouse's AQ scores and the couples' compatibility in their autistic tendency. Perceived family support and parental education moderated the link but not child's autistic severity. Research and clinical implications regarding psychiatric vulnerability of parents of children with ASD were drawn and discussed.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 06/2014; 44(11). DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2151-5 · 3.34 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
122 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014