The spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells
ABSTRACT Exposure of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces oxidative and inflammatory stresses, which cause cell damage. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), commonly used in free radical analysis, but these aspects of DMPO have been little explored. In this study, we sought to establish the anti-inflammatory activity of DMPO, presumably by removing free radicals which otherwise help activate inflammatory response and damage cells.
RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with LPS and/or DMPO for different time points, cell damage, production of inflammatory mediators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, NF-κB p65 activation, phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined.
After cells were treated with LPS and/or DMPO for 24 h, DMPO reduced the LPS-induced inflammatory response as indicated by downregulated iNOS expression and production of inflammatory mediators. Accordingly, DMPO protected cells from LPS-induced cytotoxicity. In order to understand the mechanistic basis of these DMPO effects, the NF-κB p65 activation and the phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt were examined. We found, by assaying cells treated with LPS and/or DMPO for 15-60 min, that DMPO inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPKs, Akt, and IκBα, and reduced the NF-κB p65 translocation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that DMPO inhibited LPS-induced ROS production.
DMPO showed the anti-inflammatory activity and attenuated LPS-induced cell damage, most likely by reducing ROS production and thus preventing the subsequent inflammatory activation and damage.
- SourceAvailable from: Dario C Ramirez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The free-radical-operated mechanism of death of activated macrophages at sites of inflammation is unclear, but it is important to define it in order to find targets to prevent further tissue dysfunction. A well-defined model of macrophage activation at sites of inflammation is the treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with the resulting production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS and other free radicals can be trapped with the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), a cell-permeable probe with antioxidant properties, which thus interferes with free-radical-operated oxidation processes. Here we have used immuno-spin trapping to investigate the role of free-radical-operated protein oxidation in LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS resulted in increased ROS production, oxidation of proteins, cell morphological changes and cytotoxicity. DMPO was found to trap protein radicals to form protein-DMPO nitrone adducts, to reduce protein carbonyls, and to block LPS-induced cell death. N-Acetylcysteine (a source of reduced glutathione), diphenyleneiodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase), and 2,2'-dipyridyl (a chelator of Fe(2+)) prevented LPS-induced oxidative stress and cell death and reduced DMPO-nitrone adduct formation, suggesting a critical role of ROS, metals, and protein-radical formation in LPS-induced cell cytotoxicity. We also determined the subcellular localization of protein-DMPO nitrone adducts and identified some candidate proteins for DMPO attachment by LC-MS/MS. The LC-MS/MS data are consistent with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, one of the most abundant, sensitive, and ubiquitous proteins in the cell, becoming labeled with DMPO when the cell is primed with LPS. This information will help find strategies to treat inflammation-associated tissue dysfunction by focusing on preventing free radical-operated proteotoxic stress and death of macrophages.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2012; 53(1):172-81. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.04.023 · 5.71 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emerging pathological evidence indicates that major chronic aging-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases, are inflammation-related. In this review, inflammation is examined as a possible underlying basis for the molecular alterations that link aging and age-related pathological processes. A proposal for the molecular inflammation hypothesis of the aging views the redox derangement that occurs during aging as the major factor for increased risk for age-related inflammation. Accumulated data strongly indicate the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and dysregulated gene expression under the age-related oxidative stress seems to be the major culprits. Key players involved in the inflammatory process are the age-related upregulation of NF-kappaB, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, cyclooxygenase-2, adhesion molecules, and inducible NO synthase. Furthermore, data are presented on the molecular events involved in age-related NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation by IkappaB kinase/NIK and MAPKs. Experimental data on anti-aging calorie restriction (CR) for its antiinflammatory efficacy by suppressing the upregulated proinflammatory mediators will be reviewed. Also, the involvement of another super family of transcription factors, PPARs (PPARalpha, gamma) as regulators of proinflammatory responses and NF-kappaB signaling pathway is described as well as a discussion on the physiological significance of a well-maintained balance between NF-kappaB and PPARs.Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 03/2006; 8(3-4):572-81. DOI:10.1089/ars.2006.8.572 · 7.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nitrone therapeutics has been employed in the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases such as neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The nitrone-based compound NXY-059, which is the first drug to reach clinical trials for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, has provided promise for the development of more robust pharmacological agents. However, the specific mechanism of nitrone bioactivity remains unclear. In this review, we present a variety of nitrone chemistry and biological activity that could be implicated for the nitrone's pharmacological activity. The chemistries of spin trapping and spin adduct reveal insights on the possible roles of nitrones for altering cellular redox status through radical scavenging or nitric oxide donation, and their biological effects are presented. An interdisciplinary approach towards the development of novel synthetic antioxidants with improved pharmacological properties encompassing theoretical, synthetic, biochemical and in vitro/in vivo studies is covered.Future medicinal chemistry 06/2012; 4(9):1171-207. DOI:10.4155/fmc.12.74 · 4.00 Impact Factor