The spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells.
ABSTRACT Exposure of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces oxidative and inflammatory stresses, which cause cell damage. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), commonly used in free radical analysis, but these aspects of DMPO have been little explored. In this study, we sought to establish the anti-inflammatory activity of DMPO, presumably by removing free radicals which otherwise help activate inflammatory response and damage cells.
RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with LPS and/or DMPO for different time points, cell damage, production of inflammatory mediators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, NF-κB p65 activation, phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined.
After cells were treated with LPS and/or DMPO for 24 h, DMPO reduced the LPS-induced inflammatory response as indicated by downregulated iNOS expression and production of inflammatory mediators. Accordingly, DMPO protected cells from LPS-induced cytotoxicity. In order to understand the mechanistic basis of these DMPO effects, the NF-κB p65 activation and the phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt were examined. We found, by assaying cells treated with LPS and/or DMPO for 15-60 min, that DMPO inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPKs, Akt, and IκBα, and reduced the NF-κB p65 translocation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that DMPO inhibited LPS-induced ROS production.
DMPO showed the anti-inflammatory activity and attenuated LPS-induced cell damage, most likely by reducing ROS production and thus preventing the subsequent inflammatory activation and damage.
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ABSTRACT: The nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) is commonly used to study free radicals. Due to its free radical trapping properties, DMPO is thought to reduce free radial-mediated oxidative damage and other related cellular responses. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of DMPO on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. The results showed that DMPO at 50 mM inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase expression when added shortly after LPS treatment (≤3 h). Interestingly, DMPO increased anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and reversed LPS-induced decrease in HO-1 expression. LPS could increase cellular ER stress as indicated by C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induction; DMPO reduced LPS effect on CHOP expression. Unexpectedly, DMPO had a synergistic effect with LPS on increased caspase-3 activity. Overall, DMPO harbors multiple modulating effects but may induce apoptosis in LPS-stressed cells when given at 50 mM, an effective dose for its anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Our data provide clues for further understanding of the nitrone spin trap with therapeutic potential.Inflammation 10/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immuno-spin trapping (IST) is based on the reaction of a spin trap with a free radical to form a stable nitrone adduct, followed by the use of antibodies, rather than traditional electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, to detect the nitrone adduct. IST has been successfully applied to mechanistic in vitro studies, and recently, macromolecule-centered radicals have been detected in models of drug-induced agranulocytosis, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and ischemia/reperfusion, as well as in models of neurological, metabolic and immunological diseases. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: To critically evaluate advances, challenges, and pitfalls as well as the scientific opportunities of IST as applied to the study of protein-centered free radicals generated in stressed organelles, cells, tissues and animal models of disease and exposure. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Because the spin trap has to be present at high enough concentrations in the microenvironment where the radical is formed, the possible effects of the spin trap on gene expression, metabolism and cell physiology have to be considered in the use of IST and in the interpretation of results. These factors have not yet been thoroughly dealt with in the literature. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of radicalized proteins during cell/tissue response to stressors will help define their role in the complex cellular response to stressors and pathogenesis; however, the fidelity of spin trapping/ immuno-detection and the effects of the spin trap on the biological system should be considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Current methods to study reactive oxygen species - pros and cons.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The free-radical-operated mechanism of death of activated macrophages at sites of inflammation is unclear, but it is important to define it in order to find targets to prevent further tissue dysfunction. A well-defined model of macrophage activation at sites of inflammation is the treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with the resulting production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS and other free radicals can be trapped with the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), a cell-permeable probe with antioxidant properties, which thus interferes with free-radical-operated oxidation processes. Here we have used immuno-spin trapping to investigate the role of free-radical-operated protein oxidation in LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS resulted in increased ROS production, oxidation of proteins, cell morphological changes and cytotoxicity. DMPO was found to trap protein radicals to form protein-DMPO nitrone adducts, to reduce protein carbonyls, and to block LPS-induced cell death. N-Acetylcysteine (a source of reduced glutathione), diphenyleneiodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase), and 2,2'-dipyridyl (a chelator of Fe(2+)) prevented LPS-induced oxidative stress and cell death and reduced DMPO-nitrone adduct formation, suggesting a critical role of ROS, metals, and protein-radical formation in LPS-induced cell cytotoxicity. We also determined the subcellular localization of protein-DMPO nitrone adducts and identified some candidate proteins for DMPO attachment by LC-MS/MS. The LC-MS/MS data are consistent with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, one of the most abundant, sensitive, and ubiquitous proteins in the cell, becoming labeled with DMPO when the cell is primed with LPS. This information will help find strategies to treat inflammation-associated tissue dysfunction by focusing on preventing free radical-operated proteotoxic stress and death of macrophages.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2012; 53(1):172-81. · 5.27 Impact Factor