Tannic acid inhibited norovirus binding to HBGA receptors, a study of 50 Chinese medicinal herbs

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong, China.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.79). 02/2012; 20(4):1616-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.11.040
Source: PubMed


Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis affecting people of all ages worldwide. The disease is difficult to control due to its widespread nature and lack of an antiviral or vaccine. NoV infection relies on the interaction of the viruses with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as host receptors. Here we investigated inhibition effects of Chinese medicinal herbs against NoVs binding to HBGAs for potential antivirals against NoVs. Blocking assays was performed using the NoV protrusion (P) protein as NoV surrogate and saliva as HBGAs. Among 50 clinically effective Chinese medicinal herbs against gastroenteritis diseases, two herbs were found highly effective. Chinese Gall blocked NoV P dimer binding to type A saliva at IC(50)=5.35 μg/ml and to B saliva at IC(50)=21.7 μg/ml. Similarly, Pomegranate blocked binding of NoV P dimer to type A saliva at IC(50)=15.59 μg/ml and B saliva at IC(50)=66.67 μg/ml. Literature data on preliminary biochemistry analysis showed that tannic acid is a common composition in the extracts of the two herbs, so we speculate that it might be the effective compound and further studies using commercially available, highly purified tannic acid confirmed the tannic acid as a strong inhibitor in the binding of NoV P protein to both A and B saliva (IC(50)≈0.1 μM). In addition, we tested different forms of hydrolysable tannins with different alkyl esters, including gallic acid, ethyl gallate, lauryl gallate, octyl gallate and propyl gallate. However, none of these tannins-derivatives revealed detectable inhibiting activities. Our data suggested that tannic acid is a promising candidate antiviral against NoVs.

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    • "Saliva-based NoV-HBGA binding assays were performed as described previously using P dimers of VA387 (GII.4) as NoV surrogates and saliva samples and/or synthetic oligosaccharides as HBGA sources [4], [34], [35]. Briefly, synthetic oligosaccharides and/or boiled saliva samples with defined HBGAs phenotype were coated on 96-well microtiter plates, after blocking with nonfat milk, P dimer of VA387 were added. "
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