Usefulness of the Right Parasternal Approach to Evaluate the Morphology of Atrial Septal Defect for Transcatheter Closure Using Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiography
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of addition of the right parasternal approach to the conventional left parasternal and apical approaches using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for morphologic evaluation in cases of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs).
In 112 consecutive patients with ASDs, the morphology of the defects was evaluated for transcatheter closure in the right parasternal view in addition to the conventional left views using 2D and 3D TTE. Measurements of the maximal ASD diameter and detection of deficient rim obtained on 2D TTE were compared with those obtained by 2D transesophageal echocardiography. The shapes and locations of ASDs visualized by 3D TTE were compared with those visualized by 3D transesophageal echocardiography.
In 88 patients (80.0%), optimal images from the right parasternal approach for morphologic evaluation of ASDs were obtained. Although there was a significant difference in maximal ASD diameter obtained only in the conventional left approach compared with transesophageal echocardiographic measurements (P < .05), when the right parasternal approach was applied, a significant difference was not found (P = .18), and the diagnostic concordance of the rim deficiency was improved from 85.2% to 90.9%. Three-dimensional TTE from the right parasternal approach improved visualization of the shape and location of ASDs from 65.5% to 74.5%.
Additional use of the right parasternal approach enables detailed morphologic evaluation for transcatheter closure of ASDs. In patients with suboptimal images on 3D TTE in the left conventional approach, additional 3D TTE in the right parasternal approach can improve the feasibility of obtaining optimal 3D images to evaluate the shapes and locations of ASDs.
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ABSTRACT: After the introduction of catheter intervention for atrial septal defect (ASD) in the pediatric population, therapeutic advantages of this less invasive procedure were focused on adult through geriatric populations. The most valuable clinical benefits of this procedure are the significant improvement of symptoms and daily activities, which result from the closure of left to right shunt without thoracotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. These benefits contribute to increase the number of adult patients of this condition who have hesitated over surgical closure. In terms of technical point of view for catheter closure of ASD, the difficulties still exist in some morphological features of defect, or hemodynamic features in the adult population. Morphological features of difficult ASD closure are (1) large (≥30 mm) ASD, (2) wide rim deficiency, and (3) multiple defects. Hemodynamic features of difficult ASD are (1) severe pulmonary hypertension, (2) ventricular dysfunction, and (3) restrictive left ventricular compliance (diastolic dysfunction) after ASD closure. To complete the catheter ASD closure under these difficult conditions, various procedural techniques have been introduced. These are new imaging modalities such as real-time three-dimensional imaging, new technical modifications, and new concepts for hemodynamic evaluation. Especially, real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can provide the high quality imaging for anatomical evaluation including maximum defect size, surrounding rim morphology, and the relationship between device and septal rim. In adult patients, optimal management for their comorbidities is an important issue, which includes cardiac function, atrial arrhythmias, respiratory function, and renal function. Management of atrial arrhythmias is a key issue for the long-term outcome in adult patients. Because the interventional procedures are not complication-free techniques, the establishment of a surgical back-up system is essential for the safe achievement of the procedure. Finally, the establishment of a team approach including pediatric and adult cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and anesthesiologists is the most important factor for a good therapeutic outcome.Journal of Cardiology 10/2014; 65(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.09.002 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data are needed on the safety and efficacy of device closure of large atrial septal defects. Between 1998 and 2013, 336 patients (161 children <15 years) with large, isolated, secundum atrial septal defects (balloon-stretched diameter ≥34 mm in adults or echocardiographic diameter >15 mm/m(2) in children) were managed using the Amplatzer device, at the Marie Lannelongue Hospital. Transthoracic echocardiographic guidance was used starting in 2005 (n=219; 65.2%). Balloon-stretched diameter was >40 mm in 36 adults; mean values were 37.6±3.3 mm in other adults and 26.3±6.3 mm/m(2) in children. Amplatzer closure was successful in 311 (92.6%; 95% confidence interval, 89%-95%) patients. Superior and posterior rim deficiencies were more common in failed than in successful procedures (superior, 24.0% versus 4.8%; P=0.002; and posterior, 32.0% versus 4.2%; P<0.001). Device migration occurred in 4 adults (2 cases each of surgical and transcatheter retrieval); in the 21 remaining failures, the device was unreleased and withdrawn. After a median follow-up of 10.0 years (2.5-17 years), all patients were alive with no history of late complications. Closure of large atrial septal defects using the Amplatzer device is safe and effective in both adults and children. Superior and posterior rim deficiencies are associated with procedural failure. Closure can be performed under transthoracic echocardiographic guidance in experienced centers. Early device migration is rare and can be safely managed by device extraction. Long-term follow-up showed no deaths or major late complications in our population of 311 patients. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 11/2014; DOI:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.113.001254 · 6.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects has become a popular procedure. The availability of a preprocedural imaging study is crucial for a safe and successful closure. Both the anatomy and morphology of the defect should be precisely evaluated before the procedure. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography are helpful for understanding the morphology of a defect, which is important because different defect morphologies could variously impact the results. During the procedure, real-time 3D echocardiography can be used to guide an accurate closure. The safety and efficiency of transcatheter closures of atrial septal defects could be improved through the use of detailed imaging studies.Korean Journal of Pediatrics 07/2014; 57(7):297-303. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2014.57.7.297