Targeting A20 enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT A20 was initially identified as a primary gene product following TNF α treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Increased A20 expression is associated with tumorigenesis in many cancers, whereas the loss of A20 function is linked to lymphoma. It has been reported that A20 protects cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis; however, the mechanism by which A20 is involved is still largely unknown. Our results indicate that TRAIL induces the hepatocellular carcinoma apoptosis associated with A20 knockdown in a concentration-dependent manner. TRAIL-induced apoptosis requires p18 caspase-8 activation, and, the activation of caspase-8 is at least in part, due to the direct cleavage of RIP1 by A20 knockdown. These findings suggest that A20 modulates the sensitivity to TRAIL by RIP1 ubiquitination, thereby repressing the recruitment and activation of pro-caspase-8 into the active form caspase-8. Thus, our study suggests that A20 protects against TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the regulation of RIP1 ubiquitination.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol exposure results in liver injury that is driven in part by inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF). Hepatocytes are normally resistant to the cytotoxic effects of TNF, but they become sensitized to TNF by chronic alcohol exposure. Recently, we reported that the decrease in the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) that occurs with alcoholic liver injury renders hepatocytes sensitive to TNF cytotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) contributed to TNF-induced cell death in hepatocytes with high levels of SAH. Primary human hepatocytes or HepG2 cells were pre-incubated with a combination of adenosine plus homocysteine to increase SAH levels. Following exposure to TNF, viability was determined by the MTT assay, and activation of the NF-κB pathway was assessed by measuring degradation of cytosolic IκB-α, phosphorylation and translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus, and expression of NF-κB-dependent genes. TNF-induced apoptotic signaling pathways were assessed by monitoring levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, A20, and cleavage products of the caspase-8 substrate, RIP1. NF-κB-mediated gene expression was inhibited in cells with high SAH, despite the fact that TNF-induced degradation of the cytoplasmic inhibitor IκB-α and accumulation of NF-κB in the nucleus persisted for much longer. In contrast to control cells, the NF-κB that accumulated in the nucleus of cells with high SAH levels was not phosphorylated at serine 536, a modification associated with activation of the transactivation potential of this transcription factor. The inhibition of transactivation by NF-κB resulted in lower mRNA and protein levels of the anti-apoptotic protein A20 and increased cleavage of RIP1. High SAH levels inhibited NF-κB-mediated gene expression and sensitized primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells to the cytotoxic effects of TNF. It is likely that crosstalk with other transcription factors is perturbed under these conditions, resulting in still other changes in gene expression.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 11/2013; · 3.31 Impact Factor
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2012; 420(2):485. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) influences endothelial cell viability by altering the regulatory molecules involved in induction or suppression of apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrated that A20 (also known as TNFAIP3, tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3, and an anti-apoptotic protein) regulates the inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP-2) expression upon TNF-α induction in endothelial cells. Inhibition of A20 expression by its siRNA resulted in attenuating expression of TNF-α-induced cIAP-2, yet not cIAP-1 or XIAP. A20-induced cIAP-2 expression can be blocked by the inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3-K), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB, while concomitantly increasing the number of endothelial apoptotic cells and caspase 3 activation. Moreover, TNF-α-mediated induction of apoptosis was enhanced by A20 inhibition, which could be rescued by cIAP-2. Taken together, these results identify A20 as a cytoprotective factor involved in cIAP-2 inhibitory pathway of TNF-α-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with the idea that endothelial cell viability is dependent on interactions between inducers and suppressors of apoptosis, susceptible to modulation by TNF-α.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 03/2014; 15(3):3816-33. · 2.34 Impact Factor