Temporal trends and spatial differences of perfluoroalkylated substances in livers of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) populations from Northern Europe, 1991-2008
ABSTRACT Long-term temporal trends (1991-2008) and spatial differences of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were investigated in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) liver samples of juvenile females from the Baltic and North Sea. Additionally, spatial differences between the populations in the Baltic Sea and Atlantic Ocean (i.e. Iceland and Norway) and the influence of the body mass, age and sex on the PFAS concentrations were examined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant compound with a concentration range of 160-2425 ng/g wet weight (ww), followed by perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, 1-237 ng/g ww) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA, 3-124 ng/g ww). In terms of temporal trends, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and PFOSA concentrations decreased over time, while, conversely, the C(9)-C(13) perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (PFCA) concentrations increased. Spatial distribution of the contaminant concentrations showed consistently higher concentrations in the Baltic Sea and lowest concentrations in the Icelandic population of the Atlantic Ocean.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine how dietary exposure to PFAAs has changed over the period when major production changes occurred. Archived samples (1999–2010) of eggs, milk and farmed rainbow trout were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in fish (p < 0.002 and p < 0.032, respectively) and eggs (p < 0.001 for both compounds). Concentrations of PFOS in fish and eggs decreased by a factor of 10 and 40, respectively. In eggs there was also a statistically significant decreasing trend in concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The results of this study demonstrate that PFAA concentrations in food items from agricultural food chains and aquatic food chains close to sources respond rapidly to changes in environmental emissions. Implications for the overall understanding of human exposure are discussed.Environmental Pollution 05/2014; 188:102–108. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.01.026 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current contamination levels of selected legacy, currently-used and emerging halogenated contaminants were monitored in marine shellfish along French coastlines. The studied contaminants included polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). BDE-47, BDE-209, BTBPE, HBB and α-HBCDD were detected in 100% of the analyzed samples, whereas BB-153, DBDPE and PFOS were detected at frequencies of 97%, 90% and 55%, respectively. Concentrations were in the pgg(-1)ww range and varied as follows: PFOS>BDE-47∼α-HBCDD>BDE-209>BTBPE∼DBDPE>HBB∼BB-153. Overall, non-PBDE Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) revealed concentrations between 3 and 59 times lower than those of PBDEs. PBDE pattern was dominated by BDE-47, followed by BDE-99>BDE-100>BDE-49>BDE-209>BDE-154; these 6 congeners represented 94% of the summed ten PBDEs. PFC pattern determination revealed PFOS as the predominant PFC in samples from the English Channel and Atlantic, whereas perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) prevailed in Mediterranean samples. Temporal trend investigations on archived samples from the Mediterranean coast collected between 1981 and 2012 showed a prevalence of PFOS until 1998; PFCAs subsequently increased and became more abundant than PFOS. High levels of PFCAs were observed until 2008, followed by a decrease and stabilization in 2010-2012. Amongst PFCAs, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) were predominant and exhibited similar time trends, suggesting similar sources at the investigated site, home to major industrial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Chemosphere 11/2014; 118C:329-335. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.106 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this article I review recent trends reported in the literature from 2008 to date for organic contaminant concentrations in marine mammal tissues worldwide, in order to get an idea of where we stand currently in relation to the control of hazardous substances. For many contaminants which have been subject to regulation regarding their production and use (e.g. organochlorine pesticides, PBDE and HBCD flame retardants, butyltins) trends are downwards. For perfluorinated compounds, trends are more mixed. For dioxins, furans and dioxin-like CBs, there are no recent data, for either concentrations or trends. For CBs overall, earlier downward trends in concentration in UK harbour porpoises following regulation beginning in the 1980s have stalled, and remain at toxicologically significant levels. This raises concerns for killer whales and bottlenose dolphins who, because of their larger size and greater bioaccumulation potential, have higher levels still, often far above accepted toxicological threshold values.Marine Pollution Bulletin 04/2014; 82(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.03.024 · 2.79 Impact Factor