Discrepancies in the acute versus chronic toxicity of compounds with a designated narcotic mechanism
ABSTRACT In this study, it was illustrated that even for certain simple organic compounds with a designated mode of action (MOA) (i.e. narcotic toxicity) unexpected differences in acute and chronic toxicity can be observed. In a first part of the study, species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) based on either acute or chronic toxicity data of three narcotic test compounds (methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol) were constructed. The results of the acute SSDs were as expected for narcotic compounds: rather similar sensitivity and small differences in toxicity were observed among different species. On the contrary, the chronic SSDs of methanol and ethanol indicated larger interspecies variation in sensitivity. Furthermore, the chronic toxicity trend (ethanol>methanol>2-propanol) was unexpectedly different from the acute toxicity trend (2-propanol>ethanol>methanol) and acute versus chronic extrapolation could not be successfully described for methanol and ethanol using an ACR of 10 (as suggested for narcotic compounds). In contrast to the interspecies approach in the first part of this study, the second part of the study was focused on the assessment of acute and chronic toxicity of the three test compounds in Daphnia magna, which was identified as one of the most sensitive organisms to methanol and ethanol. Here, the differences in acute and chronic toxicity trend were in accordance to the results of the SSDs. The enhancement of membrane penetration due to the small molecular size of methanol and ethanol, in combination with the higher toxicity of their respective biotransformation products were suggested as potential causes of the increased chronic toxicity. Furthermore, it was stressed that larger awareness of these irregularities in acute to chronic extrapolations of narcotic compounds is required and should receive additional attention in further environmental risk assessment procedure.
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ABSTRACT: As organisms are typically exposed to chemical mixtures over long periods of time, chronic mixture toxicity is the best way to perform an environmental risk assessment (ERA). However, it is difficult to obtain the chronic mixture toxicity data due to the high expense and the complexity of the data acquisition method. Therefore, an approach was proposed in this study to predict chronic mixture toxicity. The acute (15 min exposure) and chronic (24 h exposure) toxicity of eight antibiotics and trimethoprim to Vibrio fischeri were determined in both single and binary mixtures. The results indicated that the risk quotients (RQs) of antibiotics should be based on the chronic mixture toxicity. To predict the chronic mixture toxicity, a docking-based receptor library of antibiotics and the receptor-library-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model were developed. Application of the developed QSAR model to the ERA of antibiotic mixtures demonstrated that there was a close affinity between RQs based on the observed chronic toxicity and the corresponding RQs based on the predicted data. The average coefficients of variations were 46.26 and 34.93 % and the determination coefficients (R (2)) were 0.999 and 0.998 for the low concentration group and the high concentration group, respectively. This result convinced us that the receptor library would be a promising tool for predicting the chronic mixture toxicity of antibiotics and that it can be further applied in ERA.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 11/2012; 185(6). DOI:10.1007/s10661-012-2885-5
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ABSTRACT: Luminescent bacterial test is a fast and sensitive method for acute toxicity assessment of water and wastewater. In this study, an improved toxicity testing method was developed using the freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 that involved pretreatment of water samples with reverse osmosis (RO) to eliminate the interferences caused by nutrients in concentrated samples and to improve the reliability and sensitivity of the analysis. Because water samples contain low concentrations of several target toxic substances, rapid acute toxicity testing method that is commonly employed does not achieve enough sensitivity. The proposed RO pretreatment could effectively enrich organic and inorganic substances in water samples to enable a more effective and sensitive toxicity evaluation. The kinetic characteristics of toxicity of raw sewage and secondary effluent were evaluated based on the relative luminescence unit (RLU) curves and time-concentration-effect surfaces. It was observed that when the exposure time was prolonged to 8-h or longer, the bacteria reached the logarithmic growth stage. Hence, the stimulating effects of the coexisting ions (such as Na(+), K(+), NO3(-)) in the concentrated samples could be well eliminated. A 10-h exposure time in proposed Q67 test was found to quantitatively evaluate the toxicity of the organic and inorganic pollutants in the RO-concentrated samples.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.08.001
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ABSTRACT: Vertebrate testing under the European Union's regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) is discouraged, and the use of alternative nontesting approaches such as quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) is encouraged. However, robust QSARs predicting chronic ecotoxicity of organic compounds to fish are not available. The Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) Class Program is a computerized predictive system that estimates the acute and chronic toxicity of organic compounds for several chemical classes based on their log octanol–water partition coefficient (KOW). For those chemical classes for which chronic training data sets are lacking, acute to chronic ratios are used to predict chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Although ECOSAR reaches a high score against the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) principles for QSAR validation, the chronic QSARs in ECOSAR are not fully compliant with OECD criteria in the framework of REACH or CLP (classification, labeling, and packaging) regulation. The objective of the present study was to develop a chronic ecotoxicity QSAR for fish for compounds acting via nonpolar and polar narcosis. These QSARs were built using a database of quality screened toxicity values, considering only chronic exposure durations and relevant end points. After statistical multivariate diagnostic analysis, literature-based, mechanistically relevant descriptors were selected to develop a multivariate regression model. Finally, these QSARs were tested for their acceptance for regulatory purposes and were found to be compliant with the OECD principles for the validation of a QSAR. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2217–2225. © 2013 SETACEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10/2013; 32(10). DOI:10.1002/etc.2301