Psychopharmacology of Autism Spectrum Disorders
ABSTRACT At present, no evidence-based effective pharmacologic options are available for treating the core deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are best addressed by behavioral and educational interventions. However, such evidence exists for several of the frequently associated/comorbid symptoms such as aggression and severe irritability, hyperactivity, and repetitive behaviors, which can become a major source of additional distress and interference in functioning. This article offers information on the psychopharmacology of ASD that is current, relevant, and organized in a user-friendly manner, to form a concise but informative reference guide for primary pediatric clinicians.
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- "Moreover, cognitive training, family support, and observational learning also improve some symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (Kern et al., 2009). Peer-mediated social engagement, observational learning and training of social skills are especially promising for treatment of abnormal social behaviors and communications in children with autism (Reichow and Volkmar, 2010; Kaplan and McCracken, 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Several behavioral interventions, based on social enrichment and observational learning are applied in treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the mechanism of such modulatory effect and the safety of applied methods on individuals involved in social support need further investigation. We took advantage of known differences between inbred mouse strains to reveal the effect of social enrichment on behavior and neurobiology of animals with different behavioral phenotypes. C57BL/6 and DBA/2 female mice displaying multiple differences in cognitive, social, and emotional behavior were group-housed either in same-strain or in mixed-strain conditions. Comprehensive behavioral phenotyping and analysis of expression of several plasticity- and stress-related genes were done to measure the reciprocal effects of social interaction between the strains. Contrary to our expectation, mixed housing did not change the behavior of DBA/2 mice. Nevertheless, the level of serum corticosterone and the expression of glucocorticoid receptor Nr3c1 in the brain were increased in mixed housed DBA/2 as compared with those of separately housed DBA/2 mice. In contrast, socially active C57BL/6 animals were more sensitive to the mixed housing, displaying several signs of stress: alterations in learning, social, and anxiety-like behavior and anhedonia. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by the elevated serum corticosterone and the reduced expression of Nr3c1, as well as the elevated Bdnf levels in the cortex and hippocampus. Our results demonstrate the importance of social factors in modulation of both behavior and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms in stress response, and draw attention to the potential negative impact of social interventions for individuals involved in social support.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 08/2014; 8:257. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00257 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) using methylphenidate (MPH). Methods : Retrospective review of the charts of 79 children and adolescents with ASDs, who visited the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Seoul National Hospital, from July 2010 to July 2011, was conducted. Changes in illness severity and improvement were measured using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of illness (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) Scales. Results : We found that MPH was prescribed in 23 (29.1%) children and adolescents. Of the 23 patients on MPH, 4 patients (17.4%) were on MPH monotherapy and 18 patients (78.3%) were using risperidone concomitantly. MPH was prescribed primarily for symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity in ASDs patients. The mean dosage of MPH was mg/day and mean duration of treatment was months. Mean CGI-S score improved significantly from baseline to endpoint (from to ; p09/2012; 23(3). DOI:10.5765/jkacap.2012.23.3.154
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ABSTRACT: Pervasive developmental disorders are now commonly referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). ASDs present with a range of severity and impairments, and often are a cause of severe disability, representing a major public health concern. The diagnostic criteria require delays or abnormal functioning in social interaction, language, and/or imaginative play within the first 3 years of life, resulting in a deviation from the developmental pattern expected for the age. Because establishing a diagnosis of ASD is possible as early as 18-24 months of age, clinicians should strive to identify and begin intervention in children with ASD as soon as signs are manifest. Increasing efforts are underway to make ASD screening universal in pediatric healthcare. Given the crucial importance of early identification and multiple modalities of treatment for ASD, this review will summarize the diagnostic criteria, key areas for assessment by clinicians, specific scales and instruments for assessment, and discussion of evidence-based treatment programs and the role of specific drug therapies for symptom management.Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 12/2012; 35:S62-S72. DOI:10.1590/1516-4446-2013-S104 · 1.64 Impact Factor