Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine and Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, 1000 Oakland Drive, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA.
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.12). 02/2012; 59(1):27-43, ix-x. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2011.10.003
Source: PubMed


Epidemiologic data gathered over the last 40 years report that the conservative estimate of autistic spectrum disorder prevalence is 27.5 per 10,000 individuals; however, the prevalence estimate based on newer surveys is 60 per 10,000 individuals. Several factors are considered in various epidemiologic surveys of autism, especially the evolution of the concept of autism and changing criteria for diagnosis. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for autism.

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    • "Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior (American Psychiatric Association 2013). The number of individuals identified with ASD in the last decade has risen (Duchan and Patel 2012), partly because of increased identification of high functioning children without cognitive delays (Honda et al. 2005). While these children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) have intellectual functioning within the normal range, core social and behavioral difficulties often permeate their academic, social, and emotional development (Church et al. 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of a behavioral summer treatment program for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Twenty boys (M = 9.2 years) diagnosed with HFASD participated in the 6-week program across 6 years. Detailed daily behavioral data were collected on a variety of positive and negative social behaviors. Repeated measures ANOVAs of weekly behavior frequencies indicated substantial improvements in a number of behaviors over the 6 weeks of the program, including following activity rules, contributing to a group discussion, paying attention, and less complaining/whining. Overall, results highlight the potential efficacy of treating chronic functional impairments of HFASD and associated problem behaviors in the context of an intensive behavioral summer treatment program.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2241-4 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (referred to as ''autism'' in this paper), currently characterized as a group of neurodevelopmental conditions marked by impairments in social interaction and communication as well as restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior (American Psychiatric Association 2000), has increased markedly over the past two to three decades (Wing and Potter 2002; Duchan and Patel 2012). Studies examining prevalence trends over a shorter, more recent time frame have also reported significant increases (Pinborough-Zimmerman et al. 2012; Lai et al. 2012; Chien et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2002/2003, the National Epidemiologic Database for the Study of Autism in Canada started capturing information on children diagnosed with autism in different regions of the country. Based on data collected through 2008 in Newfoundland and Labrador and 2010 in Prince Edward Island and Southeastern Ontario, the estimated average annual percent increases in prevalence among children 2-14 years of age ranged from 9.7 % (95 % CI 7.8-11.6) to 14.6 % (95 % CI 11.3-18.0). Differential in-migration and identification of previously undetected cases may have contributed in part to the increases observed, but we cannot rule out the possibility of a true increase in incidence, particularly given the lack of a leveling-off of prevalence among the 6- to 9-year olds.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 06/2013; 44(1). DOI:10.1007/s10803-013-1856-1 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, co–morbidity is highly prevalent in ASD. For example, 40-75% of children with ASD are mentally retarded (Fombonne, 2003; Newschaffer et al., 2007) and epilepsy is reported in up to one third of children (Jeste, 2011). Several genetic diseases have also been associated with autism including Fragile-X and Tuberous sclerosis complex (Benvenuto at al., 2009). "
    Autism - A Neurodevelopmental Journey from Genes to Behaviour, 08/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-493-1
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