Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine and Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, 1000 Oakland Drive, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA.
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.12). 02/2012; 59(1):27-43, ix-x. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2011.10.003
Source: PubMed


Epidemiologic data gathered over the last 40 years report that the conservative estimate of autistic spectrum disorder prevalence is 27.5 per 10,000 individuals; however, the prevalence estimate based on newer surveys is 60 per 10,000 individuals. Several factors are considered in various epidemiologic surveys of autism, especially the evolution of the concept of autism and changing criteria for diagnosis. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for autism.

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    • "The newest research insights on its etiology have shown that ASD is highly heritable (Eapen 2011) and indicate a delay in brain development (Bastiaanse et al. 2011; Hazlett et al. 2006; Hedvall et al. 2014; Hua et al. 2011; Roberts et al. 2013; Whitehouse et al. 2011). Survey studies propose the best estimate for the prevalence of ASD as being 70–90/10,000 (Fombonne 2009), with a male to female ratio of 4:1 (Duchan and Patel 2012). However, in studies after 2004, this ratio has increased to 100–250/10,000 (Isaksen et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by an interview with the rector of the school or its delegate. Results show an extremely low prevalence of 0.11 % of pupils with any ASD diagnosis; another 0.21 % were suspected to have ASD, but were without a diagnosis. This low prevalence suggests that children and adolescents with ASD are not included in regular education in Quito. These results are discussed in the light of low diagnostic identification of ASD and low inclusion tolerance.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10803-015-2559-6 · 3.06 Impact Factor
    • "Current epidemiological data show that ASDs are more common than was thought a few years ago. Specifically, there are between 6 and 8 cases per 1000 inhabitants (1%) and AS is 8–10 times more common in males (Duchan & Patel, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Asperger Syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in interpersonal skills. Different theories have tried to explain this disorder by taking into account general intelligence, information processing, executive functions, emotional intelligence, etc., but to date, none of these completely explains the cause of these deficits. The present study investigates the relations between interpersonal skill deficits and different cognitive skills. A total of 45 children with Asperger Syndrome, between the ages of 7 and 13, were assessed using tests of intelligence, executive function (using a dynamic assessment methodology) and social comprehension. The results show that Asperger Syndrome children profit from the brief training inserted into a dynamic assessment test. In addition, dynamic assessment reveals differences within the Asperger Syndrome group that go unnoticed in standard assessment, and shows how these differences are related to measures of social comprehension and to the intercorrelation between WISC sub-tests. In conclusion, use of dynamic assessment methodology may be useful for planning interventions.
    Learning and Individual Differences 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2015.07.004 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    • "Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior (American Psychiatric Association 2013). The number of individuals identified with ASD in the last decade has risen (Duchan and Patel 2012), partly because of increased identification of high functioning children without cognitive delays (Honda et al. 2005). While these children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) have intellectual functioning within the normal range, core social and behavioral difficulties often permeate their academic, social, and emotional development (Church et al. 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of a behavioral summer treatment program for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Twenty boys (M = 9.2 years) diagnosed with HFASD participated in the 6-week program across 6 years. Detailed daily behavioral data were collected on a variety of positive and negative social behaviors. Repeated measures ANOVAs of weekly behavior frequencies indicated substantial improvements in a number of behaviors over the 6 weeks of the program, including following activity rules, contributing to a group discussion, paying attention, and less complaining/whining. Overall, results highlight the potential efficacy of treating chronic functional impairments of HFASD and associated problem behaviors in the context of an intensive behavioral summer treatment program.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2241-4 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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