Article

Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia duodenalis infection among children: a case study in Portugal.

National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Reference Laboratory for Gastrointestinal Infections, Av. Padre Cruz, Lisbon, Portugal.
Parasites & Vectors (Impact Factor: 3.25). 01/2012; 5:22. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-22
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. The prevalence of this parasite in children residing in Portugal is currently unknown. This study intended to estimate G. duodenalis infection prevalence and identify possible associated risk factors in a healthy paediatric population living in the District of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon.
Between February 2002 and October 2008, 844 children were randomly selected at healthcare centres while attending the national vaccination program. A stool sample and a questionnaire with socio-demographic data were collected from each child. Giardia infection was diagnosed by direct examination of stools and antigen detection by ELISA.
The population studied revealed a gender distribution of 52.8% male and 47.2% female. Age distribution was 47.4% between 0-5 years and 52.6% between 6-15 years.The prevalence of Giardia infection was 1.9% (16/844) when estimated by direct examination and increased to 6.8% (57/844) when ELISA results were added. The prevalence was higher among children aged 0-5 years (7.8%), than among older children (5.8%), and was similar among genders (6.9% in boys and 6.5% in girls). The following population-variables were shown to be associated risk factors for G. duodenalis infection: mother's educational level (odds ratio (OR)= 4.49; confidence interval (CI): 1.20-16.84), father's educational level (OR = 12.26; CI: 4.08-36.82), presence of Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 1.82; CI: 1.05-3.15), living in houses with own drainage system (OR = 0.10; CI: 0.02-0.64) and reported household pet contact, especially with dogs (OR = 0.53; CI: 0.31-0.93).
The prevalence of giardiasis in asymptomatic children residing in the region of Lisbon is high. Several risk factors were associated with Giardia prevalence and highlight the importance of parents' education and sanitation conditions in the children's well being. The association between G. duodenalis and H. pylori seems an important issue deserving further investigation in order to promote prevention or treatment strategies.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
128 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Giardia lamblia is an important cause of diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. Giardiasis— a mild and self-limiting disease that this protozoan causes— is perceived as a harmful disease. Aim. To explore the general level of awareness about giardiasis, clinical features, mode of transmission, prevention, and consequences and describe the sources and channels of information caregivers would prefer using to be informed about this disease. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among caregivers attending to the outpatient paediatric hospital setting in Havana. Results. A total of 202 caregivers were interviewed. Nearly 73% considered giardiasis as a modern problem, and 39% considered that it could be a fatal disease. Although 76.7% were aware that small intestine is the organ affected, other localizations were cited. Abdominal pain and diarrhoea were recognized as the commonest symptoms. Around one-third could identify that giardiasis may spread through drinking unboiled water and unwashed vegetables other incorrect ways were mentioned; respondents with more than 12 years of formal education were more likely to have better knowledge. Discussion. Strategies to control giardiasis need to be through an integrated approach aiming at boosting caregivers’ knowledge and encouraging healthcare workers to act as a readily available source for health information.
    ISRN Preventive Medicine. 12/2012; 2013.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess water-borne parasite point prevalence in communities in close proximity to Lake Victoria in Uganda prior to the implementation of a clean water intervention, and to investigate possible associations of water source and latrine access with protozoan prevalence. Utilizing a rapid antigen test, parasite prevalence for Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was determined from stool samples of individuals living in six Ugandan communities. Stool sample test results were stratified by the independent variables of gender, age, community, water source (improved or lake), and presence of a latrine. The impact of the independent variables on parasite prevalence was investigated with bivariable and multivariable analyses. The prevalence of Giardia (12%) was influenced by age and community of residence. The prevalence of Entamoeba (10%) did not significantly vary by the independent variables. The prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites is significant in Ugandan communities bordering Lake Victoria. Interventions to continue to improve water sources remain a high priority. Rapid antigen testing is likely to be useful in the monitoring of water-borne parasite prevalence.
    International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 04/2013; · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n = 340; Bos taurus; < 3 months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n = 297; Bubalus bubalis; <6 months and >6 months of age groups; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n = 1), C. bovis (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 3) and C. suis (n = 1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other new genotypes were defined in water buffaloes, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in water buffaloes in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not detected in any of the samples from pre-weaned calves tested in the present study. However, eight new genotypes were recorded. Future studies of different host species in various regions are required to investigate the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in Sri Lanka and neighbouring countries in South Asia.
    Parasites & Vectors 02/2014; 7(1):75. · 3.25 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
35 Downloads
Available from
May 28, 2014