Changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood magnetization each induce changes in the transverse relaxation rate of MRI signal that are associated with changes in cerebral activity. BOLD signal, the preeminent method for non-invasive localization of task-induced brain function in human subjects, reflects a combination of changes in CBV and blood magnetization. Intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast media, usually iron oxide particles surrounded by larger macromolecules, can overwhelm the BOLD response and sensitize signal to blood plasma volume, a method we have deemed "IRON" fMRI. The practical advantage of this technique is the ability to optimize blood magnetization at any echo time, enabling high detection power and the use of short echo times; for these reasons, IRON fMRI has become a valuable imaging tool in animal models. The temporal response of blood plasma volume is quite different from blood flow and BOLD signal; thus, CBV has been identified as a prominent source of transient features of the BOLD response. This article reviews the methodological advantages of the IRON method and how CBV measurements have informed our understanding of the BOLD response.
"First, we only imaged ~250 μm below the surface of the cortex, meaning that the entire depth of cortex we imaged over would be lumped together into a single 'upper layer' in an fMRI experiment, in which the contribution from intracortical vessels in the upper levels will likely overwhelm any blood volume changes due to pial vessels. In addition, the vascular density on the surface of the brain is ~3× higher than inside the brain, and the pial vasculature is almost entirely composed of large vessels (Tsai et al., 2009), which could cause greatly reduced sensitivity to pial vessel dilation when using supermagnetic particle fMRI techniques, which are sensitive to vessel size (Mandeville, 2012; S.-G. Kim et al., 2013a; J.H. Kim et al., 2013b). "
"Although literature comparisons focus on preclinical results using the commonly employed IRON fMRI technique , the expectation is that the model calculations also will be applicable to future human studies based upon robust techniques like BOLD signal at very high field strengths, or the IRON method in standard clinical MRI scanners (Qiu et al., 2012). This model approach has been presented previously in preliminary form (Mandeville et al., 2012; Normandin et al., 2012a). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes a multi-receptor physiological model of the fMRI temporal response and signal magnitude evoked by drugs that elevate synaptic dopamine in basal ganglia. The model is formulated as a summation of dopamine's effects at D1-like and D2-like receptor families, which produce functional excitation and inhibition, respectively, as measured by molecular indicators like adenylate cyclase or neuroimaging techniques like fMRI. Functional effects within the model are described in terms of relative changes in receptor occupancies scaled by receptor densities and neuro-vascular coupling constants. Using literature parameters, the model reconciles many discrepant observations and interpretations of pre-clinical data. Additionally, we present data showing that amphetamine stimulation produces fMRI inhibition at low doses and a biphasic response at higher doses in the basal ganglia of non-human primates (NHP), in agreement with model predictions based upon the respective levels of evoked dopamine. Because information about dopamine release is required to inform the fMRI model, we simultaneously acquired PET 11C-raclopride data in several studies to evaluate the relationship between raclopride displacement and assumptions about dopamine release. At high levels of dopamine release, results suggest that refinements of the model will be required to consistently describe the PET and fMRI data. Overall, the remarkable success of the model in describing a wide range of preclinical fMRI data indicate that this approach will be useful for guiding the design and analysis of basic science and clinical investigations and for interpreting the functional consequences of dopaminergic stimulation in normal subjects and in populations with dopaminergic neuroadaptations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since its inception over twenty years ago, the field of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has grown in usage, sophistication, range of applications, and impact. After twenty years, it's useful to briefly look back as well as forward - to size up just how far we have come and speculate just how far we may go. This is an introduction to the special issue of "Twenty years of fMRI: the science and the stories." The one-hundred and three papers in this special issue highlight the major methodological developments and controversies of fMRI from a first person perspective over the past twenty years. The growth of this field is not just fascinating from a science and technology perspective, but also from a human perspective. Most who were fortunate enough to be part of this effort at the beginning, as well as those who jumped in along the way have their fair share of interesting stories consisting of top rate science as well as intense thought and effort, good or bad fortune, and some claim to a contribution. These stories are in the following papers, written by the current leaders in the field and the innovators throughout the twenty year history. The categories, designed to cover every aspect of the emergence and development of fMRI, include: pre-fMRI; the first BOLD brain activation results; developments in pulse sequences, imaging methods, and hardware for fMRI; methodological developments, issues, and mechanisms; new paradigm designs; education; and the future. Within this issue, we have a collage of overlapping, complementary, yet sometimes contradictory accounts of what happened during the breathtakingly diverse and intense development of this still growing field over the past twenty years.
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