Mini-Mental State Examination versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment: Rapid assessment tools for cognitive and functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
ABSTRACT Recent studies suggest that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is more sensitive to stroke-associated cognitive dysfunction than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), but little is known about how these screening measures relate to neurocognitive test performance or real-world functioning in patients with good recovery after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The aim of the present study was to determine how MoCA and MMSE scores relate to neurocognitive impairment and return to work after aSAH.
Thirty-two patients with aSAH who had made a good recovery completed the MoCA, the MMSE, and a battery of neurocognitive tests.
42% and 0% of aSAH patients were impaired on the MoCA and MMSE, respectively. The MoCA had acceptable sensitivity (40-100%) and specificity (54-68%) (Table 3). The MMSE failed to detect impairment in any cognitive domain. The MoCA, but not the MMSE, predicted performance on tests of verbal learning, executive function, working memory, visuospatial function, and motor function. Superior performance on the Animal naming and Abstraction subtests of the MoCA score were associated with return to work following aSAH.
Compared to the MMSE, the MoCA is more sensitive to aSAH-associated cognitive impairment. Certain MoCA subtests are also sensitive to functional difficulties after aSAH such as return to work. These findings support the utility of the MoCA as a brief bedside assessment of cognitive and real-world outcome in aSAH survivors.
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ABSTRACT: Leukoaraiosis (LA) is a leading cause of gait disturbance in the elderly and well known as a type of cerebrovascular diseases. LA is mainly caused by the focal ischemic damage in cerebral white matter. Cognitive impairment in patients with LA is difficult to treat. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been reported to improve the cognitive function in patients with cognitive impairment. However, whether CAS can ameliorate the cognitive impairment in patients with LA remains unknown. To address this problem, we prospectively enrolled 105 LA patients with carotid stenosis and 206 healthy subjects, who are free of carotid artery stenosis and brain diseases or injuries, as the control. Neuropsychological functions were tested in these LA patients before and after 1-, 6- and 12-month CAS, and compared with the data of control subjects. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China (WAIS-RC) scores were lower in LA patients than those in healthy controls (P < 0.05), indicating the cognitive impairment in the LA patients. Compared with the scores before CAS, there is a time-dependent increase in MMSE and WAIS-RC scores after 1-, 6- and 12-month CAS (P < 0.05). Moreover, CAS treatment reduced Clinical Dementia Rating scale in LA patients. The cognitive impairment of LA patients with carotid stenosis was severe, but their cognitive impairment was ameliorated with carotid stenosis (P < 0.01). Thus, CAS can improve cognitive function of the LA patients with carotid stenosis.The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2014; 233(4):257-64. DOI:10.1620/tjem.233.257 · 1.28 Impact Factor
Stroke 08/2014; 45(10). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.004590 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyze the impact of inflammation and negative nitrogen balance (NBAL) on nutritional status and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This was a prospective observational study of SAH patients admitted between May 2008 and June 2012. Measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), transthyretin (TTR), resting energy expenditure (REE), and NBAL (g/day) were performed over 4 preset time periods during the first 14 postbleed days (PBD) in addition to daily caloric intake. Factors associated with REE and NBAL were analyzed with multivariable linear regression. Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) were tracked daily for time-to-event analyses. Poor outcome at 3 months was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥4 and assessed by multivariable logistic regression. There were 229 patients with an average age of 55 ± 15 years. Higher REE was associated with younger age (p = 0.02), male sex (p < 0.001), higher Hunt Hess grade (p = 0.001), and higher modified Fisher score (p = 0.01). Negative NBAL was associated with lower caloric intake (p < 0.001), higher body mass index (p < 0.001), aneurysm clipping (p = 0.03), and higher CRP:TTR ratio (p = 0.03). HAIs developed in 53 (23%) patients on mean PBD 8 ± 3. Older age (p = 0.002), higher Hunt Hess (p < 0.001), lower caloric intake (p = 0.001), and negative NBAL (p = 0.04) predicted time to first HAI. Poor outcome at 3 months was associated with higher Hunt Hess grade (p < 0.001), older age (p < 0.001), negative NBAL (p = 0.01), HAI (p = 0.03), higher CRP:TTR ratio (p = 0.04), higher body mass index (p = 0.03), and delayed cerebral ischemia (p = 0.04). Negative NBAL after SAH is influenced by inflammation and associated with an increased risk of HAI and poor outcome. Underfeeding and systemic inflammation are potential modifiable risk factors for negative NBAL and poor outcome after SAH. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.Neurology 01/2015; 84(7). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001259 · 8.30 Impact Factor