Identification of unique expression signatures and therapeutic targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB), normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND), and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets.
As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA) were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels.
These data reveal insight into genes and molecular pathways mediating ESCC development and provide information potentially useful in designing novel therapeutic interventions for this tumor type.
Article: Cloning of BRAK, a novel divergent CXC chemokine preferentially expressed in normal versus malignant cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chemokines are a family of related proteins that regulate leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissue and play important roles in many disease processes. Chemokines are divided into two major groups, CC or CXC, based on their sequence around the amino terminal cysteines. We report the PCR cloning of a novel human chemokine termed BRAK for its initial isolation from breast and kidney cells. This novel chemokine is distantly related to other CXC chemokines (30% identity with MIP-2alpha and beta) and shares several biological activities. BRAK is expressed ubiquitously and highly in normal tissue. However, it was expressed in only 2 of 18 cancer cell lines. BRAK is located on human chromosome 5q31.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/1999; 255(3):703-6. · 2.48 Impact Factor
Article: Analyzing the G2/M checkpoint.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The G2 checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis when DNA is damaged, providing an opportunity for repair and stopping the proliferation of damaged cells. Because the G2 checkpoint helps to maintain genomic stability, it is an important focus in understanding the molecular causes of cancer. Many different methods have been used to investigate the G2 checkpoint and uncover some of the underlying mechanisms. Because cell-cycle controls are highly conserved, a remarkable synergy between the genetic power of model organisms and biochemical analyses is possible and has uncovered control mechanisms that operate in many diverse species, including humans. Cdc2, the cyclin-dependent kinase that normally drives cells into mitosis, is an important target of pathways that mediate rapid arrest in G2 in response to DNA damage. Additional pathways ensure that the arrest is stably maintained. When mammalian cells contain damaged DNA, the p53 tumor suppressor and the Rb family of transcriptional repressors work together to downregulate a large number of genes that encode proteins required for G2 and M. Elimination of these essential cell cycle proteins helps to keep the cells arrested in G2.Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2004; 280:51-82.
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ABSTRACT: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a valuable tool for measuring gene expression in biological samples. However, unique challenges are encountered when studies are performed on cells microdissected from tissues derived from animal models or the clinic, including specimen-related issues, variability of RNA template quality and quantity, and normalization. qRT-PCR using small amounts of mRNA derived from dissected cell populations requires adaptation of standard methods to allow meaningful comparisons across sample sets. The protocol described here presents the rationale, technical steps, normalization strategy and data analysis necessary to generate reliable gene expression measurements of transcripts from dissected samples. The entire protocol from tissue microdissection through qRT-PCR analysis requires approximately 16 h.Nature Protocol 02/2009; 4(6):902-22. · 8.36 Impact Factor