Methods and issues associated with the use of quality-adjusted life-years
Center for Health Outcomes Research, United BioSource Corporation, 7101 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 600, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research (Impact Factor: 1.67). 02/2012; 12(1):105-14. DOI: 10.1586/erp.11.100
In this article, we will focus on how preferences and utilities are measured, including the strengths and limitations of various approaches, discuss their use in estimating quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and make some recommendations for further research. Preferences are either measured using direct (visual analog scale, time trade-off or standard gamble) or indirect methods. The most commonly used generic indirect measures include the Quality of Well-Being scale, EuroQol-5 Dimension, Health Utilities Index and Short Form-6 Dimension. Disease-specific preference measures are increasingly being developed and applied in studies as more sensitive measures of health status. Preference-based measures and QALY measurement need to be enhanced, and additional research is needed to improve scientific methods for estimating preferences for health assessment. Given the increased focus on comparative effectiveness research, QALYs have the potential for helping researchers, clinicians, health policy-makers and patients to understand the relative effectiveness of alternative interventions for treating medical conditions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections incur considerable costs to healthcare and are associated with high mortality. These infections are increasing, due in part to more intensive immunosuppressive regimens with longer periods of neutropenia for patients treated for conditions such as cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Therapeutic strategies in treating invasive fungal infections include the initiation of empiric antifungal therapy. This early treatment is triggered by fever that is unresponsive to 48-72 h of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in high-risk patients, prior to diagnosis. Several antifungal agents are available for this purpose. Informed decisions with respect to the choice of antifungal drug require clinicians to consider both efficacy data of a particular drug and the economic consequences of using the drug. This enables a treatment decision to be based not only on drug acquisition cost, but also expenses associated with hospitalization, monitoring and managing adverse effects to the treatment(s) chosen.Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research 04/2013; 13(2):227-35. DOI:10.1586/erp.13.3 · 1.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to compare psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L (5L) and the EQ-5D-3L (3L) health outcomes assessment instruments in patients with hepatitis B in China. Patients, including hepatitis B virus carriers and those with active or inactive chronic hepatitis B, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, answered a questionnaire composed of 5L, socio-demographic information, 3L, and the visual analog scale (VAS), respectively. After 1 week, a retest was conducted for inpatients. We compared acceptability, face validity, redistribution properties, convergent validity, known-group validity, discriminatory power, ceiling effect, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of 5L and 3L. A total of 369 outpatients and 276 inpatients were recruited for the first interview. Of the inpatients, 183 were used in the retest. Most patients preferred 5L-3L. The 3L-5L response pairs had an inconsistency rate of 2.4 %. Correlation with the VAS was greater with 5L than with 3L. Age, education, and comorbidity were associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). 5L discriminated more infectious conditions than 3L. In all dimensions, the Shannon's index from 5L was larger while in three dimensions the Shannon's evenness index from 5L was slightly larger. The ceiling effect was reduced in 5L. In patients with stable health states, no significant difference was detected in the weighted kappa between 5L and 3L, but intraclass correlation coefficient of 5L was higher than that of 3L. In patients with improved health states, HRQoL was seen as increased in both 5L and 3L, without significant difference. The EQ-5D-5L was more suitable than the EQ-5D-3L in the patients with hepatitis B in China.Quality of Life Research 03/2014; 23(8). DOI:10.1007/s11136-014-0670-3 · 2.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: The standard gamble is considered the 'gold standard' technique for measuring quality of life. We recently used the standard gamble to estimate quality of life in acute venous thrombosis, and found unexpected variability in the responses. The current study aimed to explore the reasons for variability by comparing the standard gamble technique in patients with acute venous thrombosis to other quality of life measurement tools. Materials and methods: Thrombosis clinic patients treated for venous thrombosis were eligible to participate. Patients evaluated their current health state by performing a standard gamble interview, reporting on a visual analogue scale, completing the SF-36 and disease specific questionnaires (PEmb-Qol and VEINES-QOL/Sym). Validity was assessed by correlating the standard gamble utilities with the other methods. Test-retest reliability, responsiveness and acceptability were also assessed. Results: Forty-four patients were interviewed, with 16 attending for a repeat interview. The median standard gamble utility was 0.97 (0.84-1.0), SF-6D 0.64 (0.59 - 0.80) and visual analogue score 70 (60 - 80). Participants with pulmonary embolism had lower standard gamble estimates than those with deep vein thrombosis. There was good discriminant validity in that the standard gamble estimates were not associated with risk taking behavior, negative outlook, sex or education. Test-retest reliability with the standard gamble was moderate and there was evidence of a ceiling effect. Conclusions: Standard gamble utilities are higher than other methods of measuring quality of life in venous thrombosis. The choice of utility values adopted in studies will impact on future economic studies.Thrombosis Research 08/2014; 134(4). DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.07.029 · 2.45 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.