The socioeconomic burden of systemic lupus erythematosus: state-of-the-art and prospects.

Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, 9/F Clinical Sciences Building, The Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong.
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research (Impact Factor: 1.67). 02/2012; 12(1):53-69. DOI: 10.1586/erp.11.92
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypical, autoimmune, multisystem disease characterized by chronic inflammation in multiple organs. SLE can cause significant and potentially irreversible morbidity, stemming from the relapsing-remitting disease course, the undesirable changes in appearance and the side effects of medication. The prolonged life expectancy and increased prevalence of SLE have imposed challenges on the healthcare system. There is concern that the growing costs of healthcare are becoming unaffordable. Cost analyses evaluating the economic burden of SLE are imperative. This review will summarize the current state-of-the-art regarding the economic burden of SLE and discuss how it could affect clinical and political decisions. Several methodological considerations and unsolved issues will also be emphasized.

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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, disabling, progressive disease, with many associated comorbidities, affecting patients during prime working years resulting in a high economic burden on society, producing high direct, indirect and intangible costs. In this article, our goals are two-fold. First, we review and discuss studies published in the period 2002-2012 concerning costs of SLE and point out gaps in the published literature. Second, we propose further research studies to advance our understanding of the economic perspective in SLE in the current area of new and emerging therapies. The literature evaluating disease costs in SLE remains limited and to date has only included a small number of countries. Despite these limitations, available studies indicate that SLE has significant socio-economic ramifications. Future studies are needed, especially to assess novel biologic therapies which have been made available or currently under investigation for SLE. An interesting approach in these new economic evaluations in SLE may be represented by the selection of the targets of the treatment to include in the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses. Future treat-to-target strategies will likely include evaluation of their pharmacoeconomic implications.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 10/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite overall progress in treatment of autoimmune diseases, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience many inflammatory symptoms representing an unmet medical need. This study aimed to create a conceptual model of the humanistic and economic burden of SLE, and review the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) used to measure such concepts in SLE clinical trials.MethodsA conceptual model for SLE was developed from structured review of published articles from 2007 to August 2013 identified from literature databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EconLit) plus other sources (PROLabels, FDA/EMA websites, PROs targeting key symptoms/impacts were identified from the literature. They were reviewed in the context of available guidance and assessed for face and content validity and psychometric properties to determine appropriateness for use in SLE trials.ResultsThe conceptual model identified fatigue, pain, cognition, daily activities, emotional well-being, physical/social functioning and work productivity as key SLE concepts. Of the 68 articles reviewed, 38 reported PRO data. From these and the other sources, 15 PROs were selected for review, including SLE-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures (n¿=¿5), work productivity (n¿=¿1), and generic measures of fatigue (n¿=¿3), pain (n¿=¿2), depression (n¿=¿2) and HRQoL (n¿=¿2). The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue Scale (FACIT-Fatigue), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-SF) and LupusQoL demonstrated the strongest face validity, conceptual coverage and psychometric properties measuring key concepts in the conceptual model. All PROs reviewed, except for three Lupus-specific measures, lacked qualitative SLE patient involvement during development. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form [36 item] Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2),) EuroQoL 5-dimensions (EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L) and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire:Lupus (WPAI:Lupus) showed suitability for SLE economic models.Conclusions Based on the identification of key symptoms and impacts of SLE using a scientifically sound conceptual model, we conclude that SLE is a condition associated with high unmet need and considerable burden to patients. This review highlights the availability and need for disease-specific and generic patient-reported measures of relevant domains of disease signs and symptoms, HRQoL and work productivity, providing useful insight for SLE clinical trial design.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 07/2014; 12(1):116. · 2.27 Impact Factor