Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypical, autoimmune, multisystem disease characterized by chronic inflammation in multiple organs. SLE can cause significant and potentially irreversible morbidity, stemming from the relapsing-remitting disease course, the undesirable changes in appearance and the side effects of medication. The prolonged life expectancy and increased prevalence of SLE have imposed challenges on the healthcare system. There is concern that the growing costs of healthcare are becoming unaffordable. Cost analyses evaluating the economic burden of SLE are imperative. This review will summarize the current state-of-the-art regarding the economic burden of SLE and discuss how it could affect clinical and political decisions. Several methodological considerations and unsolved issues will also be emphasized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, disabling, progressive disease, with many associated comorbidities, affecting patients during prime working years resulting in a high economic burden on society, producing high direct, indirect and intangible costs. In this article, our goals are two-fold. First, we review and discuss studies published in the period 2002-2012 concerning costs of SLE and point out gaps in the published literature. Second, we propose further research studies to advance our understanding of the economic perspective in SLE in the current area of new and emerging therapies. The literature evaluating disease costs in SLE remains limited and to date has only included a small number of countries. Despite these limitations, available studies indicate that SLE has significant socio-economic ramifications. Future studies are needed, especially to assess novel biologic therapies which have been made available or currently under investigation for SLE. An interesting approach in these new economic evaluations in SLE may be represented by the selection of the targets of the treatment to include in the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses. Future treat-to-target strategies will likely include evaluation of their pharmacoeconomic implications.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 10/2012; 30(4). · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To assess the costs of illness, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and their associated factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in South Korea.Method
Two hundred and one patients with SLE were enrolled at the Rheumatology clinic of Seoul National University Hospital. Direct, indirect and total costs and HRQOL were measured using hospital electronic data and face-to-face interview. Socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with cost of illness and HRQOL were analyzed using multiple regression and multivariate logistic regression.ResultsThe average total cost of illness was estimated to be KRW 9.82 million (US $ 8993) per year, of which 41.6% was accounted for by direct costs and 58.4% by indirect costs. In multivariate regression, patients with renal involvement and those with depression incurred an average increment in annual total costs of 37.6% (p = 0.050) and 49.1% (p = 0.024), respectively, and an average increment in annual direct costs of 26.4% (p = 0.050) and 43.3% (p = 0.002), respectively, compared with patients without renal involvement and depression, respectively. In addition, disease damage was positively associated with an average increment in annual total and direct costs (55.3%, p = 0.006; 33.3%, p = 0.013, respectively), and the occurrence of indirect costs (OR 2.21, 1.09-4.88). There was no significant difference in HRQOL between patients with and without renal involvement (0.655 vs. 0.693, p = 0.203)Conclusion
Renal involvement, depression, and disease damage were major factors associated with higher total and medical costs for patients with SLE in South Korea. Effective treatment of renal disorders and depression may reduce the high economic burden of SLE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Despite overall progress in treatment of autoimmune diseases, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience many inflammatory symptoms representing an unmet medical need. This study aimed to create a conceptual model of the humanistic and economic burden of SLE, and review the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) used to measure such concepts in SLE clinical trials.MethodsA conceptual model for SLE was developed from structured review of published articles from 2007 to August 2013 identified from literature databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EconLit) plus other sources (PROLabels, FDA/EMA websites, Clinicaltrials.gov). PROs targeting key symptoms/impacts were identified from the literature. They were reviewed in the context of available guidance and assessed for face and content validity and psychometric properties to determine appropriateness for use in SLE trials.ResultsThe conceptual model identified fatigue, pain, cognition, daily activities, emotional well-being, physical/social functioning and work productivity as key SLE concepts. Of the 68 articles reviewed, 38 reported PRO data. From these and the other sources, 15 PROs were selected for review, including SLE-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures (n¿=¿5), work productivity (n¿=¿1), and generic measures of fatigue (n¿=¿3), pain (n¿=¿2), depression (n¿=¿2) and HRQoL (n¿=¿2). The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue Scale (FACIT-Fatigue), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-SF) and LupusQoL demonstrated the strongest face validity, conceptual coverage and psychometric properties measuring key concepts in the conceptual model. All PROs reviewed, except for three Lupus-specific measures, lacked qualitative SLE patient involvement during development. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form [36 item] Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2),) EuroQoL 5-dimensions (EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L) and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire:Lupus (WPAI:Lupus) showed suitability for SLE economic models.Conclusions
Based on the identification of key symptoms and impacts of SLE using a scientifically sound conceptual model, we conclude that SLE is a condition associated with high unmet need and considerable burden to patients. This review highlights the availability and need for disease-specific and generic patient-reported measures of relevant domains of disease signs and symptoms, HRQoL and work productivity, providing useful insight for SLE clinical trial design.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 07/2014; 12(1):116. DOI:10.1186/s12955-014-0116-1 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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