Article

Genetic Mapping and Exome Sequencing Identify Variants Associated with Five Novel Diseases

Clinic for Special Children, Strasburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2012; 7(1):e28936. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028936
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Clinic for Special Children (CSC) has integrated biochemical and molecular methods into a rural pediatric practice serving Old Order Amish and Mennonite (Plain) children. Among the Plain people, we have used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays to genetically map recessive disorders to large autozygous haplotype blocks (mean = 4.4 Mb) that contain many genes (mean = 79). For some, uninformative mapping or large gene lists preclude disease-gene identification by Sanger sequencing. Seven such conditions were selected for exome sequencing at the Broad Institute; all had been previously mapped at the CSC using low density SNP microarrays coupled with autozygosity and linkage analyses. Using between 1 and 5 patient samples per disorder, we identified sequence variants in the known disease-causing genes SLC6A3 and FLVCR1, and present evidence to strongly support the pathogenicity of variants identified in TUBGCP6, BRAT1, SNIP1, CRADD, and HARS. Our results reveal the power of coupling new genotyping technologies to population-specific genetic knowledge and robust clinical data.

0 Followers
 · 
304 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have identified TUBGCP4 variants in individuals with autosomal-recessive microcephaly and chorioretinopathy. Whole-exome sequencing performed on one family with two affected siblings and independently on another family with one affected child revealed compound-heterozygous mutations in TUBGCP4. Subsequent Sanger sequencing was performed on a panel of individuals from 12 French families affected by microcephaly and ophthalmic manifestations, and one other individual was identified with compound-heterozygous mutations in TUBGCP4. One synonymous variant was common to all three families and was shown to induce exon skipping; the other mutations were frameshift mutations and a deletion. TUBGCP4 encodes γ-tubulin complex protein 4, a component belonging to the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) and known to regulate the nucleation and organization of microtubules. Functional analysis of individual fibroblasts disclosed reduced levels of the γ-TuRC, altered nucleation and organization of microtubules, abnormal nuclear shape, and aneuploidy. Moreover, zebrafish treated with morpholinos against tubgcp4 were found to have reduced head volume and eye developmental anomalies with chorioretinal dysplasia. In summary, the identification of TUBGCP4 mutations in individuals with microcephaly and a spectrum of anomalies in eye development, particularly photoreceptor anomalies, provides evidence of an important role for the γ-TuRC in brain and eye development. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2015; 96(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.02.011 · 10.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During injury, cells are vulnerable to apoptosis from a variety of stress conditions including DNA damage causing double-stranded breaks. Without repair, these breaks lead to aberrations in DNA replication and transcription, leading to apoptosis. A major response to DNA damage is provided by the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) that is capable of commanding a plethora of signaling networks for DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and even apoptosis. A key element in the DNA damage response is the mobilization of activating proteins into the cell nucleus to repair damaged DNA. BRAT1 is one of these proteins and it functions as an activator of ATM by maintaining its phosphorylated status while also keeping other phosphatases at bay. However, it is unknown how BRAT1 is trafficked into the cell nucleus to maintain ATM phosphorylation. Here we demonstrate that Ndfip1-mediated ubiquitination of BRAT1 leads to BRAT1 trafficking into the cell nucleus. Without Ndfip1, BRAT1 failed to translocate to the nucleus. Under genotoxic stress, cells showed increased expression of both Ndfip1 and phosphorylated ATM. Following brain injury, neurons show increased expression of Ndfip1 and nuclear translocation of BRAT1. These results point to Ndfip1 as a sensor protein during cell injury and Ndfip1 upregulation as a cue for BRAT1 ubiquitination by Nedd4 E3 ligases, followed by nuclear translocation of BRAT1. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2015; 290(11). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.613687 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CODAS syndrome is a multi-system developmental disorder characterized by cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. Using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, we identified four LONP1 mutations inherited as homozygous or compound-heterozygous combinations among ten individuals with CODAS syndrome. The individuals come from three different ancestral backgrounds (Amish-Swiss from United States, n = 8; Mennonite-German from Canada, n = 1; mixed European from Canada, n = 1). LONP1 encodes Lon protease, a homohexameric enzyme that mediates protein quality control, respiratory-complex assembly, gene expression, and stress responses in mitochondria. All four pathogenic amino acid substitutions cluster within the AAA(+) domain at residues near the ATP-binding pocket. In biochemical assays, pathogenic Lon proteins show substrate-specific defects in ATP-dependent proteolysis. When expressed recombinantly in cells, all altered Lon proteins localize to mitochondria. The Old Order Amish Lon variant (LONP1 c.2161C>G[p.Arg721Gly]) homo-oligomerizes poorly in vitro. Lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from affected children have (1) swollen mitochondria with electron-dense inclusions and abnormal inner-membrane morphology; (2) aggregated MT-CO2, the mtDNA-encoded subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase; and (3) reduced spare respiratory capacity, leading to impaired mitochondrial proteostasis and function. CODAS syndrome is a distinct, autosomal-recessive, developmental disorder associated with dysfunction of the mitochondrial Lon protease. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2015; 96(1):121-135. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.12.003 · 10.99 Impact Factor