Mycosporine and mycosporine-like amino acids: A paramount tool against ultra violet irradiation.
ABSTRACT Various facts demonstrated that UVB is harmful to organisms. Sunscreen compounds are usually used to prevent the excessive damage caused by UVB. However, certain photosynthetic organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract the toxicity of ultraviolet radiation by synthesizing UV screening compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). MAAs provide UV protection to primary and secondary consumers through food chain and to non-biological materials by photostabilizing action. Information related to the ecological consequence of MAAs and their spatial distribution from a wide range of organisms is accumulating. Hence, our studies seek a potent class of natural sun protective compounds to understand their relationship with environment and to develop a protocol for large-scale industrial production of these compounds so that they can find application as UV-protecting cosmetics.
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ABSTRACT: Our investigation explores the immuno-efficiency of sulphated polysaccharides enriched P. vietnamenis. Isolated polysaccharide fraction (17.1-25.8%) was characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy which showed the presence of typical linear backbone structure called as Porphyran. Oral administration of porphyran (200-500mg/kg) evoked a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in weight of the thymus, spleen and lymphoid organ cellularity. The total leukocyte and lymphocyte count was increased signiﬁcantly (P<0.005). The increase in the percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values was observed. A decreased response to DTH reaction induced by SRBC was recorded. A potential phagocytic response was seen and significant changes were observed in the formation of formazone crystals. It also prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats. The results indicated that P. vietnamenis possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.International journal of biological macromolecules 03/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reef-building corals encompass various strategies to defend against harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Coral mucus contains UV-absorbing compounds and has rich prokaryotic diversity associated with it. In this study, we isolated and characterized the UV-absorbing bacteria from the mucus of the corals Porites lutea and Acropora hyacinthus during the pre-summer and summer seasons. A total of 17 UV-absorbing bacteria were isolated and sequenced. The UV-absorbing bacteria showed UV absorption at wavelengths ranging from λ max = 333 nm to λ min = 208 nm. Analysis of the DNA sequences revealed that the majority of the UV-absorbing bacteria belonged to the family Firmicutes and the remaining belonged to the family Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria). Comparison of the sequences with the curated database yielded four distinct bacterial groups belonging to the genus Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Salinicoccus and Vibrio. The absorption peaks for the UV-absorbing bacteria shifted to the UV-A range (320–400 nm) when they were incubated at higher temperatures. Deciphering the complex relationship between corals and their associated bacteria will help us to understand their adaptive strategies to various stresses.Coral Reefs 06/2013; · 3.62 Impact Factor