Latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of monocytes downregulates expression of adaptive immune response costimulatory receptors and proinflammatory cytokines.
ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is associated with the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. We report the establishment of a monocytic cell line latently infected with KSHV (KSHV-THP-1). We profiled viral and cytokine gene expression in the KSHV-THP-1 cells compared to that in uninfected THP-1 cells and found that several genes involved in the host immune response were downregulated during latent infection, including genes for CD80, CD86, and the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Thus, KSHV minimizes its immunological signature by suppressing key immune response factors, enabling persistent infection and evasion from host detection.
SourceAvailable from: Giovanna Rappocciolo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8; Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that primarily infects cells of the immune and vascular systems. HHV-8 interacts with and targets professional antigen presenting cells and influences their function. Infection alters the maturation, antigen presentation, and immune activation capabilities of certain dendritic cells (DC) despite non-robust lytic replication in these cells. DC sustains a low level of antiviral functionality during HHV-8 infection in vitro. This may explain the ability of healthy individuals to effectively control this virus without disease. Following an immune compromising event, such as organ transplantation or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, a reduced cellular antiviral response against HHV-8 compounded with skewed DC cytokine production and antigen presentation likely contributes to the development of HHV-8 associated diseases, i.e., Kaposi's sarcoma and certain B cell lymphomas. In this review we focus on the role of DC in the establishment of HHV-8 primary and latent infection, the functional state of DC during HHV-8 infection, and the current understanding of the factors influencing virus-DC interactions in the context of HHV-8-associated disease.Frontiers in Microbiology 08/2014; 5:452. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00452 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded dUTPase can modulate innate immune responses through the activation of TLR2 and NF-κB signaling. However, whether this novel immune function of the dUTPase is specific for EBV or a common property of the Herpesviridae family is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that the purified viral dUTPases encoded by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A), human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) differentially activate NF-κB through ligation of TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers. Furthermore, activation of NF-κB by the viral dUTPases was inhibited by anti-TLR2 blocking antibodies (Abs) and the over-expression of dominant-negative constructs of TLR2, lacking the TIR domain, and MyD88 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing TLR2/TLR1. In addition, treatment of human dendritic cells and PBMCs with the herpesviruses-encoded dUTPases from HSV-2, HHV-6A, HHV-8, and VZV resulted in the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-10, and IFN-γ. Interestingly, blocking experiments revealed that the anti-TLR2 Ab significantly reduced the secretion of cytokines by the various herpesviruses-encoded dUTPases (p < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that a non-structural protein encoded by herpesviruses HHV-6A, HHV-8, VZV and to a lesser extent HSV-2 is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Our results reveal a novel function of the virus-encoded dUTPases, which may be important to the pathophysiology of diseases caused by these viruses. More importantly, this study demonstrates that the immunomodulatory functions of dUTPases are a common property of the Herpesviridae family and thus, the dUTPase could be a potential target for the development of novel therapeutic agents against infections caused by these herpesviruses.Frontiers in Microbiology 09/2014; 5:504. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00504 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, induces an intense modification of lipid metabolism and enhances the angiogenic process in endothelial cells. In the present study, neutral lipid (NL) metabolism and angiogenesis were investigated in HHV8-infected HUVEC cells. The viral replication phases were verified by rtPCR and also by K8.1 and LANA immunostaining. Results: Lipid droplets (Nile Red) were higher in all phases and NL staining (LipidTOX) combined with viral-antigen detection (immunofluorescence) demonstrated a NL content increase in infected cells. In particular, triglyceride synthesis increases in the lytic phase, whereas cholesteryl ester synthesis rises in the latent one. Moreover, the inhibition of cholesterol esterification reduces neo-tubule formation mainly in latently infected cells. Conclusions: We suggest that a reprogramming of cholesteryl ester metabolism is involved in regulating neo-angiogenesis in HHV8-infected cells and plays a likely role in the high metastatic potential of derived-tumours.BMC Microbiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1186/s12866-015-0415-7 · 2.98 Impact Factor