Activation of the Nipah virus fusion protein in MDCK cells is mediated by cathepsin B within the endosome-recycling compartment.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.65). 01/2012; 86(7):3736-45. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.06628-11
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Proteolytic activation of the fusion protein of the highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV F) is a prerequisite for the production of infectious particles and for virus spread via cell-to-cell fusion. Unlike other paramyxoviral fusion proteins, functional NiV F activation requires endocytosis and pH-dependent cleavage at a monobasic cleavage site by endosomal proteases. Using prototype Vero cells, cathepsin L was previously identified to be a cleavage enzyme. Compared to Vero cells, MDCK cells showed substantially higher F cleavage rates in both NiV-infected and NiV F-transfected cells. Surprisingly, this could not be explained either by an increased F endocytosis rate or by elevated cathepsin L activities. On the contrary, MDCK cells did not display any detectable cathepsin L activity. Though we could confirm cathepsin L to be responsible for F activation in Vero cells, inhibitor studies revealed that in MDCK cells, cathepsin B was required for F-protein cleavage and productive replication of pathogenic NiV. Supporting the idea of an efficient F cleavage in early and recycling endosomes of MDCK cells, endocytosed F proteins and cathepsin B colocalized markedly with the endosomal marker proteins early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA-1), Rab4, and Rab11, while NiV F trafficking through late endosomal compartments was not needed for F activation. In summary, this study shows for the first time that endosomal cathepsin B can play a functional role in the activation of highly pathogenic NiV.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Hendra virus (HeV) is a pleomorphic virus belonging to the Paramyxovirus family. Our long-term aim is to understand the process of assembly of HeV virions. As a first step, we sought to determine the most appropriate cell culture system with which to study this process, and then to use this model to define the morphology of the virus and identify the site of assembly by imaging key virus encoded proteins in infected cells.MethodsA range of primary cells and immortalised cell lines were infected with HeV, fixed at various time points post-infection, labelled for HeV proteins and imaged by confocal, super-resolution and transmission electron microscopy.ResultsSignificant differences were noted in viral protein distribution depending on the infected cell type. At 8 hpi HeV G protein was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and M protein was seen predominantly in the nucleus in all cells tested. At 18 hpi, HeV-infected Vero cells showed M and G proteins throughout the cell and in transmission electron microscope (TEM) sections, in pleomorphic virus-like structures. In HeV infected MDBK, A549 and HeLa cells, HeV M protein was seen predominantly in the nucleus with G protein at the membrane. In HeV-infected primary bovine and porcine aortic endothelial cells and two bat-derived cell lines, HeV M protein was not seen at such high levels in the nucleus at any time point tested (8,12, 18, 24, 48 hpi) but was observed predominantly at the cell surface in a punctate pattern co-localised with G protein. These HeV M and G positive structures were confirmed as round HeV virions by TEM and super-resolution (SR) microscopy. SR imaging demonstrated for the first time sub-virion imaging of paramyxovirus proteins and the respective localisation of HeV G, M and N proteins within virions.Conclusion These findings provide novel insights into the structure of HeV and show that for HeV imaging studies the choice of tissue culture cells may affect the experimental results. The results also indicate that HeV should be considered a predominantly round virus with a mean diameter of approximately 280 nm by TEM and 310 nm by SR imaging.
    Virology Journal 11/2014; 11(1):200. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several cellular disorders have been related to the overexpression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B (CatB), such as rheumatic arthritis, muscular dystrophy, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, and tumor metastasis. Therefore, inhibiting CatB may be a way to control unregulated cellular functions and prevent tissue malformations. The inhibitory action of 1,2,4-thiadiazole (TDZ) derivatives has been associated in the literature with their ability to form disulfide bridges with the catalytic cysteine of CatB. In this work, we present molecular modeling and docking studies of a series of eight 1,2,4-thiadiazole compounds. Substitutions at two positions (3 and 5) on the 1,2,4-thiadiazole ring were analyzed, and the docking scores were correlated to experimental data. A correlation was found with the sequence of scores of four related compounds with different substituents at position 5. No correlation was observed for changes at position 3. In addition, quantum chemistry calculations were performed on smaller molecular models to study the mechanism of inhibition of TDZ at the active site of CatB. All possible protonation states of the ligand and the active site residues were assessed. The tautomeric form in which the proton is located on N2 was identified as the species that has the structural and energetic characteristics that would allow the ring opening of 1,2,4-thiadiazole.
    Journal of Molecular Modeling 06/2014; 20(6):2254. · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Newly synthesized envelope glycoproteins of neuroinvasive viruses can be sorted in a polarized manner to the somatodendritic and/or axonal domains of neurons. Although critical for transneuronal spread of viruses, the molecular determinants and interregulation of this process are largely unknown. We studied the polarized sorting of the attachment (NiV-G) and fusion (NiV-F) glycoproteins of Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus that causes fatal human encephalitis, in rat hippocampal neurons. When expressed individually, NiV-G exhibited a non-polarized distribution, whereas NiV-F was specifically sorted to the somatodendritic domain. Polarized sorting of NiV-F was dependent on interaction of tyrosine-based signals in its cytosolic tail with the clathrin adaptor complex AP-1. Co-expression of NiV-G with NiV-F abolished somatodendritic sorting of NiV-F due to incorporation of NiV-G•NiV-F complexes into axonal transport carriers. We propose that faster biosynthetic transport of unassembled NiV-F allows for its proteolytic activation in the somatodendritic domain prior to association with NiV-G and axonal delivery of NiV-G•NiV-F complexes. Our study reveals how interactions of viral glycoproteins with the host's transport machinery and between themselves regulate their polarized sorting in neurons.
    PLoS Pathogens 05/2014; 10(5):e1004107. · 8.06 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014