Determination of 2,3-dihydroxypropionamide, an oxidative metabolite of acrylamide, in human urine by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.44). 03/2012; 402(7):2431-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-5692-x
Source: PubMed


The general population is exposed to acrylamide (AA) mainly through food and tobacco smoke. AA is classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. Glycidamide (GA), as the primary oxidative metabolite, was identified to be the ultimate genotoxic agent. This warrants full investigation of the oxidative pathway in AA metabolism and the share of the oxidative compared to the reductive pathway. 2,3-Dihydroxy-propionamide (OH-PA) as the direct hydrolysis product of GA has been shown to be a major urinary oxidative metabolite in human AA metabolism. We developed an analytical method to reliably quantify OH-PA in urine by GC-MS after a multistep procedure including "stripping" on a solid phase material, lyophilization, silylation and re-extraction. With a detection limit of 1 μg/L, our method is sensitive enough to quantify OH-PA in all urine samples of the general population. Within and between series precisions were between 1.9% and 8.2% and mean recoveries between 97% and 101%. We applied this method to 30 urine samples from the general population. In all the samples, OH-PA was present in concentrations between 6.8 and 109.4 μg/L (median, 49.7 μg/L) with no difference between smokers and non-smokers. OH-PA concentrations were approximately ten times higher than expected from the metabolism of AA via GA. Currently, we cannot confirm OH-PA to be a specific biomarker of the oxidative pathway of AA metabolism. Other sources than AA respectively GA might need to be considered for the formation of OH-PA.

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    • "Using a method for analyzing AAMA and GAMA in urine, several biomonitoring studies have been carried out on the general population (Bjellaas et al., 2005, 2007b; Boettcher et al., 2005; Boettcher and Angerer, 2005; Hartmann et al., 2008; Heudorf et al., 2009; Kellert et al., 2006; Kopp et al., 2008; Urban et al., 2006). Although the exact relative contribution is not clear, hightemperature-processed foods (Latzin et al., 2012) and smoking (Bjellaas et al., 2007b; Hagmar et al., 2005) are considered as important sources of human exposure to AA, by a number of studies. Diet has been considered as one of the major contributors among the non-occupational population who were non-smokers (Dybing et al., 2005). "
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