Biochemical analysis of the human mismatch repair proteins hMutSα MSH2(G674A)-MSH6 and MSH2-MSH6(T1219D).
ABSTRACT The heterodimeric human MSH2-MSH6 protein initiates DNA mismatch repair (MMR) by recognizing mismatched bases that result from replication errors. Msh2(G674A) or Msh6(T1217D) mice that have mutations in or near the ATP binding site of MSH2 or ATP hydrolysis catalytic site of MSH6 develop cancer and have a reduced lifespan due to loss of the MMR pathway (Lin, D. P., Wang, Y., Scherer, S. J., Clark, A. B., Yang, K., Avdievich, E., Jin, B., Werling, U., Parris, T., Kurihara, N., Umar, A., Kucherlapati, R., Lipkin, M., Kunkel, T. A., and Edelmann, W. (2004) Cancer Res. 64, 517-522; Yang, G., Scherer, S. J., Shell, S. S., Yang, K., Kim, M., Lipkin, M., Kucherlapati, R., Kolodner, R. D., and Edelmann, W. (2004) Cancer Cell 6, 139-150). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from these mice retain an apoptotic response to DNA damage. Mutant human MutSα proteins MSH2(G674A)-MSH6(wt) and MSH2(wt)-MSH6(T1219D) are profiled in a variety of functional assays and as expected fail to support MMR in vitro, although they retain mismatch recognition activity. Kinetic analyses of DNA binding and ATPase activities and examination of the excision step of MMR reveal that the two mutants differ in their underlying molecular defects. MSH2(wt)-MSH6(T1219D) fails to couple nucleotide binding and mismatch recognition, whereas MSH2(G674A)-MSH6(wt) has a partial defect in nucleotide binding. Nevertheless, both mutant proteins remain bound to the mismatch and fail to promote efficient excision thereby inhibiting MMR in vitro in a dominant manner. Implications of these findings for MMR and DNA damage signaling by MMR proteins are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: DNA mismatch repair is a highly conserved DNA repair pathway. In humans, germline mutations in hMSH2 or hMLH1, key components mismatch repair, have been associated with Lynch Syndrome, a leading cause of inherited cancer mortality. Current estimates of the mutation rate and the mutational spectra in mismatch repair defective cells are primarily limited to a small number of individual reporter loci. Here we use the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to generate a genome-wide view of the rates, spectra, and distribution of mutation in the absence of mismatch repair. We performed mutation accumulation assays and next generation sequencing on 19 strains, including 16 msh2 missense variants implicated in Lynch Cancer Syndrome. The mutation rate for DNA mismatch repair null strains was ~1 mutation per genome per generation, 225-fold higher than the wild-type rate. The mutations were distributed randomly throughout the genome, independent of replication timing. The mutation spectra included insertions/deletions at homopolymeric runs (87.7%) and at larger microsatellites (5.9%), as well as transitions (4.5%) and transversions (1.9%). Additionally, repeat regions with proximal repeats are more likely to be mutated. A bias toward deletions at homopolymers and insertions at (AT)n microsatellites suggests a different mechanism for mismatch generation at these sites. Interestingly, 5% of the single base pair substitutions might represent double slippage events that occurred at the junction of immediately adjacent repeats, resulting in a shift in the repeat boundary. These data suggest a closer scrutiny of tumor suppressors with homopolymeric runs with proximal repeats as the potential drivers of oncogenesis in mismatch repair defective cells.G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 07/2013; DOI:10.1534/g3.113.006429 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA helicases use energy derived from nucleoside 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to catalyze the separation of double stranded DNA into single stranded intermediates for replication, recombination, and repair. Escherichia coli helicase II (UvrD) functions in methyl-directed mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, and homologous recombination. A previously discovered two amino acid substitution of residues 403 and 404 (both D→A) in the 2B subdomain of UvrD (uvrD303) confers an antimutator and UV sensitive phenotype on cells expressing this allele. The purified protein exhibits a "hyper-helices" unwinding activity in vitro. Using rapid quench, pre-steady state kinetic experiments we show the increased helicase activity of UvrD303 is due to an increase in the processivity of the unwinding reaction. We suggest that this mutation in the 2B subdomain results in a weakened interaction with the 1B subdomain, allowing the helicase to adopt a more open conformation. This is consistent with the idea that the 2B subdomain may have an autoregulatory role. The UvrD303 mutation may enable the helicase to unwind DNA via a 'strand displacement' mechanism, which is similar to the mechanism used to processively translocate along single-stranded DNA, and the increased unwinding processivity may contribute directly to the antimutator phenotype.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2014; 289(24). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.565309 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA is constantly under attack by a number of both exogenous and endogenous agents that challenge its integrity. Among the mechanisms that have evolved to counteract this deleterious action, mismatch repair (MMR) has specialized in removing DNA biosynthetic errors that occur when replicating the genome. Malfunction or inactivation of this system results in an increase in spontaneous mutability and a strong predisposition to tumor development. Besides this key corrective role, MMR proteins are involved in other pathways of DNA metabolism such as mitotic and meiotic recombination and processing of oxidative damage. Surprisingly, MMR is also required for certain mutagenic processes. The mutagenic MMR has beneficial consequences contributing to the generation of a vast repertoire of antibodies through class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation processes. However, this non-canonical mutagenic MMR also has detrimental effects; it promotes repeat expansions associated with neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases and may contribute to cancer/disease-related aberrant mutations and translocations. The reaction responsible for replication error correction has been the most thoroughly studied and it is the subject to numerous reviews. This review describes briefly the biochemistry of MMR and focuses primarily on the non-canonical MMR activities described in mammals as well as emerging research implicating interplay of MMR and chromatin.Frontiers in Genetics 08/2014; 5:287. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00287