Predictive value of HIV-1 replication capacity and phenotypic susceptibility scores in antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic value of HIV replication capacity (RC) for subsequent antiretroviral (ARV) treatment response in ARV-experienced patients.
RC and phenotypic resistance testing were performed at baseline and week 12 on plasma samples from patients randomized to undergo a 12-week ARV drug-free period (ARDFP) or initiate immediate salvage therapy (no-ARDFP group) in the Options in Management with Antiretrovirals (OPTIMA) trial. Dichotomous and incremental phenotypic susceptibility scores (dPSSs and iPSSs, respectively) were calculated. The predictive value of RC and PSS for ARV therapy response and/or ARDFP was evaluated using multivariate regression analysis and Pearson correlations.
In 146 no-ARDFP subjects, baseline RC (50.8%) did not change at week 12 and was not correlated with CD4 cell count or viral load changes at week 12 (P=0.33 and P=0.79, respectively) or at week 24 (P=0.96 and P=0.14, respectively). dPSS predicted virological but not CD4 cell count response to ARV therapy at weeks 12, 24 and 48 (P=0.002, P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively). RC was significantly correlated with dPSS and iPSS at baseline, but did not increase their predictive value. In the 137 ARDFP patients, RC increased significantly (from 52.4 to 85.8%), but did not predict CD4 cell count and viral load changes during ARDFP (P=0.92 and P=0.26, respectively). RC after ARDFP did not predict subsequent CD4 cell count and viral load changes 12 weeks following ARV treatment reinitiation (P=0.90 and P=0.29, respectively).
We found no additional predictive value of replication capacity for virological or immunological responses (above what PSS provides) in patients undergoing salvage ARV treatment.
- SourceAvailable from: Miguel E Quinones-Mateu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine the impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fitness on disease progression through the use of a dual competition/heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA). Despite numerous studies on the impact of HIV-1 diversity and HIV-specific immune response on disease progression, we still do not have a firm understanding of the long-term pathogenesis of this virus. Strong and early CD8-positive cytotoxic T-cell and CD4-positive T-helper cell responses directed toward HIV-infected cells appear to curb HIV pathogenesis. However, the rate at which the virus infects the CD4(+) T-cell population and possibly destroys the HIV-specific immune response may also alter the rate of disease progression. For HIV-1 fitness studies, we established conditions for dual HIV-1 infections of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and a sensitive HTA to measure relative virus production. A pairwise comparison was then performed to estimate the relative fitness of various non-syncytium-inducing/CCR5-tropic (NSI/R5) and syncytium-inducing/CXCR4-tropic (SI/X4) HIV-1 isolates. Four HIV-1 strains (two NSI/R5 and two SI/X4) with moderate ex vivo fitness were then selected as controls and competed against primary HIV-1 isolates from an HIV-infected Belgian cohort. HIV-1 isolates from long-term survivors (LTS) were outcompeted by control strains and were significantly less fit than HIV-1 isolates from patients with accelerated progression to AIDS (PRO). In addition, NSI/R5 HIV-1 isolates from PRO overgrew control SI/X4 strains, suggesting that not all SI/X4 HIV-1 isolates replicate more efficiently than all NSI/R5 isolates. Finally, there were strong, independent correlations between viral load and the total relative fitness values of HIV-1 isolates from PRO (r = 0.84, P = 0.033) and LTS (r = 0.86, P = 0.028). Separation of the PRO and LTS plots suggest that HIV-1 fitness together with viral load may be a strong predictor for the rate of disease progression.Journal of Virology 11/2000; 74(19):9222-33. DOI:10.1128/JVI.74.19.9222-9233.2000 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between baseline (BL) replication capacity (RC) (RCBL) and immunologic/virologic parameters (at BL and after 48 weeks on therapy) in HIV-1-infected subjects initiating antiretroviral therapy. RCBL was determined using a modified Monogram PhenoSense HIV drug susceptibility assay on plasma HIV-1 from 321 treatment-naive subjects from AIDS Clinical Trials Group 384. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the association of RCBL with BL and on-therapy virologic and immunologic outcomes. Higher RCBL was associated with lower baseline CD4 (CD4BL) (r = -0.23, P < 0.0001), higher baseline HIV-1 RNA (r = 0.25, P < 0.0001), higher CD4BL activation percent (r = 0.23, P < 0.0001), and lower CD4BL memory count (r = -0.21, P = 0.0002). In a multivariable model, week 48 CD4 increase (DeltaCD448) was associated with lower CD4BL memory count and higher CD4BL-naive percent (P = 0.004, P = 0.015, respectively). The interaction between CD4BL and RCBL was significant (P = 0.018), with a positive association between RCBL and DeltaCD448 in subjects with higher CD4BL and a negative association at lower absCD4BL. At baseline, higher RC was significantly associated with higher HIV-1 RNA, higher CD4 cell activation, lower CD4 cell count, and lower CD4 memory cell count. These factors may interact, directly or indirectly, to modify the extent to which CD4 recovery occurs in patients starting antiretroviral therapy at different CD4BL counts.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2009; 50(3):250-8. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181938faf · 4.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In clinical trials, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces plasma HIV-1 RNA levels to less than 500 copies/mL in 60% to 90% of patients with HIV-1 infection. The performance of such therapy outside of the clinical trial setting is unclear. To determine factors associated with failure to suppress HIV-1 RNA levels and adverse drug reactions in a cohort of patients in whom protease inhibitor-containing therapy was begun in a large urban clinic. Retrospective cohort study. Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic in Baltimore, Maryland. 273 protease inhibitor-naive patients began taking a protease inhibitor regimen containing at least one other antiretroviral drug to which the patients had not previously been exposed. Demographic variables, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4+ lymphocyte counts, and adverse drug reactions. Levels of HIV-1 RNA were undetectable in 42% of the cohort at 1 to 90 days, in 44% at 3 to 7 months, and in 37% at 7 to 14 months. Factors associated with failure to suppress viral load at two or more time points included higher rates of missed clinic appointments, nonwhite ethnicity, age 40 years or younger, injection drug use, lower baseline CD4+ lymphocyte count, and higher baseline viral load. In a multivariate model, only higher rates of missed clinic appointments were independently associated with viral suppression at 1 year. Ritonavir was associated with adverse drug reactions about twice as frequently as indinavir or nelfinavir, and women experienced significantly more adverse effects than men. Unselected patients in whom HAART is started in a clinic setting achieve viral suppression substantially less frequently than do patients in controlled clinical trials. Missed clinic visits were the most important risk factor for failure to suppress HIV-1 RNA levels. Studies are needed to identify interventions that maximize the performance of HAART in inner-city clinics.Annals of internal medicine 08/1999; 131(2):81-7. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-131-2-199907200-00002 · 17.81 Impact Factor