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Comment on: Leeds et al. High prevalence of microvascular complications in adults with type 1 diabetes and newly diagnosed celiac disease. Diabetes Care 2011;34:2158-2163.

Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 7.74). 02/2012; 35(2):e11; author reply e12. DOI: 10.2337/dc11-1976
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: To review the relationship between coeliac disease and Type 1 diabetes mellitus with emphasis on prevalence of coeliac disease, presentation and implications for screening. Papers collected over many years by the author have been included in the review and a literature search employing Medline was undertaken to August 2000. Search words used were coeliac disease and diabetes mellitus. Twenty papers exploring the prevalence of coeliac disease by serological screening of Type 1 diabetes in children, eight in adults and two including both groups were found. An additional 48 papers are included and relate to serological screening tests for coeliac disease, expressions and complications of coeliac disease, the value of GFD and the genetics of the two conditions. Unless formal screening studies are undertaken coeliac disease will not be diagnosed because patients are asymptomatic, have atypical symptoms or even in those with symptoms the diagnosis is overlooked. Based on small bowel biopsy, diagnosis the prevalence of coeliac disease in Type 1 diabetes in children is 1:6 to 1:103 and in adults 1:16 to 1:76. Patients may improve following the start of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in terms of symptoms, growth in children, serum antibody levels, haematological and biochemical indices, morphology of the small intestinal mucosa and control of diabetes. Coeliac disease commonly occurs in Type 1 diabetes. It is recommended that screening for coeliac disease should be part of the routine investigation and offered to all patients because of the high prevalence and the potential benefits of treatment with a GFD. This includes control of symptoms, stabilization of diabetes and prevention of complications associated with coeliac disease. The cost per patient diagnosed with coeliac disease from the existing population with Type 1 diabetes would be pound860 and for those newly arising pound950.
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    ABSTRACT: A strong association between type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM1) and coeliac disease (CD) is well documented, but it is known that prevalence values are underestimated. Serum anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA), considered diagnostic for CD because of their high sensitivity and specificity, belong to the IgA class, but the existence of EMA of IgG1 isotype in the presence or absence of IgA deficiency was reported. In order to re-evaluate the occurrence of CD in IDDM1 patients we performed a screening in IDDM1 patients using EMA of both isotypes. Ninety-four adults affected by IDDM1 (unaffected by CD before enrolling) were enrolled and 83 blood donors as controls. All subjects were on a gluten-containing diet. Histology and biopsy culture were performed. EMA IgA and IgG1 in sera and culture supernatants were detected. Serum EMA were positive in 13 of 94 IDDM1 patients (13.8%). Six of 13 presented IgA-EMA, seven of 13 presented IgG1-EMA. No EMA were found in the control population. Total intestinal atrophy was found in all six patients with serum IgA-EMA and in five of seven with serum IgG1-EMA. Diagnosis of CD was confirmed by histology and organ culture in all 13 patients with serum EMA. The prevalence of CD in the patients affected by IDDM1 was 6.4% for IgA-EMA-positive and 7.4% for IgG1-EMA-positive patients. We confirmed the prevalence of CD in the IDDM1 population obtained with IgA-EMA screening only (6.4%). This prevalence value increases dramatically to 13.8% when IgG1-EMA are also used in the screening. We conclude that IgG1-EMA should also be sought whenever an IDDM1 patient undergoes screening for CD.
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Oct 8, 2014