Connections between sphingosine kinase and phospholipase D in the abscisic acid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT Phosphatidic acid (PA) and phytosphingosine 1-phosphate (phyto-S1P) both are lipid messengers involved in plant response to abscisic acid (ABA). Our previous data indicate that PA binds to sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and increases its phyto-S1P-producing activity. To understand the cellular and physiological functions of the PA-SPHK interaction, we isolated Arabidopsis thaliana SPHK mutants sphk1-1 and sphk2-1 and characterized them, together with phospholipase Dα1 knock-out, pldα1, in plant response to ABA. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, the SPHK mutants and pldα1 all displayed decreased sensitivity to ABA-promoted stomatal closure. Phyto-S1P promoted stomatal closure in sphk1-1 and sphk2-1, but not in pldα1, whereas PA promoted stomatal closure in sphk1-1, sphk2-1, and pldα1. The ABA activation of PLDα1 in leaves and protoplasts was attenuated in the SPHK mutants, and the ABA activation of SPHK was reduced in pldα1. In response to ABA, the accumulation of long-chain base phosphates was decreased in pldα1, whereas PA production was decreased in SPHK mutants, compared with WT. Collectively, these results indicate that SPHK and PLDα1 act together in ABA response and that SPHK and phyto-S1P act upstream of PLDα1 and PA in mediating the ABA response. PA is involved in the activation of SPHK, and activation of PLDα1 requires SPHK activity. The data suggest that SPHK/phyto-S1P and PLDα1A are co-dependent in amplification of response to ABA, mediating stomatal closure in Arabidopsis.
SourceAvailable from: Marina Gavilanes-Ruiz[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Due to their sessile condition, plants have developed sensitive, fast, and effective ways to contend with environmental changes. These mechanisms operate as informational wires conforming extensive and intricate networks that are connected in several points. The responses are designed as pathways orchestrated by molecules that are transducers of protein and non-protein nature. Their chemical nature imposes selective features such as specificity, formation rate, and generation site to the informational routes. Enzymes such as mitogen-activated protein kinases and non-protein, smaller molecules, such as long-chain bases, phosphatidic acid, and reactive oxygen species are recurrent transducers in the pleiotropic responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In this review, we considered these four components as nodal points of converging signaling pathways that start from very diverse stimuli and evoke very different responses. These pleiotropic effects may be explained by the potentiality that every one of these four mediators can be expressed from different sources, cellular location, temporality, or magnitude. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interplay of these four specific signaling components in Arabidopsis cells, with an emphasis on drought, cold and pathogen stresses.Frontiers in Plant Science 01/2015; 6:55. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2015.00055 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The orosomucoids (ORM) are ER-resisdent polypeptides encoded by ORM and ORMDL (ORM-like) genes. In humans, ORMDL3 was reported as genetic risk factor associated to asthma. In yeast, ORM proteins act as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are important molecules regulating several processes including stress responses and apoptosis. However, the function of ORM/ORMDL genes in plants has not yet been reported. Previously, we found that temperature sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) rice lines controlled by tms2 contain a deletion of about 70 kb in chromosome 7. We identified four genes expressed in panicles, including an ORMDL ortholog, as candidates for tms2. In this report, we quantified expression of the only two candidate genes normally expressed in anthers of wild type plants grown in controlled growth rooms for fertile and sterile conditions. We found that only the ORMDL gene (LOC_Os07g26940) showed differential expression under these conditions. To better understand the function of rice ORMDL genes, we generated RNAi transgenic rice plants suppressing either LOC_Os07g26940, or all three ORMDL genes present in rice. We found that the RNAi transgenic plants with low expression of either LOC_Os07g26940 alone or all three ORMDL genes were sterile, having abnormal pollen morphology and staining. In addition, we found that both sphingolipid metabolism and expression of genes involved in sphingolipid synthesis were perturbed in the tms2 mutant, analogous to the role of ORMs in yeast. Our results indicated that plant ORMDL proteins influence sphingolipid homeostasis, and deletion of this gene affected fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106386. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106386 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In nature, root systems of most terrestrial plants are protected from light exposure by growing in a dark soil environment. Hence, in vitro cultivation in transparent Petri dishes leads to physiological perturbations, but the mechanisms underlying root-mediated light perception and responses have not been fully elucidated. Thus, we compared Arabidopsis thaliana seedling development in transparent and darkened Petri dishes at low light intensity (20 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), allowing us to follow (inter alia) hypocotyl elongation, which is an excellent process for studying interactions of signals involved in the regulation of growth and developmental responses. To obtain insights into molecular events underlying differences in seedling growth under these two conditions, we employed LC-MS shotgun proteomics (available via the PRIDE deposit PXD001612). In total, we quantified relative abundances of peptides representing 1209 proteins detected in all sample replicates of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. Comparison of MS spectra after manual validation revealed 48 differentially expressed proteins. Functional classification, analysis of available gene expression data and literature searches revealed alterations associated with root illumination (inter alia) in autotrophic CO2-fixation, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. The results also indicate a previously unreported role of cytokinin plant hormones in the escape-tropism response to root illumination. We complemented these results with RT-qPCR, chlorophyll fluorescence and detailed cytokinin signaling analyses, detecting in the latter a significant increase in activity of the cytokinin two-component signaling cascade in roots and implicating the cytokinin receptor AHK3 as the major mediator of root-to-hypocotyl signaling in responses to root illumination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.Plant and Cell Physiology 02/2015; 56(5). DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcv026 · 4.98 Impact Factor