Silibinin regulates gene expression, production and secretion of mucin from cultured airway epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT We investigated whether silibinin significantly affects gene expression, production and secretion of mucin from cultured airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with silibinin for 30 min and then stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or TNF-α for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression and mucin protein production were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of silibinin on TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB p65 was also examined. Confluent primary rat tracheal surface epithelial (RTSE) cells were pretreated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for 5 min and then treated for 30 min in the presence of silibinin to assess the effect on mucin secretion using ELISA. The results were as follows: (i) silibinin inhibited the expression of the MUC5AC mucin gene induced by EGF, PMA or TNF-α from NCI-H292 cells; (ii) silibinin also inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin protein induced by the same inducers from NCI-H292 cells; (iii) silibinin inhibited the activation of NF-κB p65 by TNF-α in NCI-H292 cells; (iv) silibinin significantly decreased ATP-induced mucin secretion from cultured RTSE cells. This result suggests that silibinin can regulate gene expression, production and secretion of mucin by directly acting on airway epithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: The chronic nature of prostate cancer growth and progression leading to metastasis provides a large window for intervention. Herein, for the first time, we investigated the effect and associated mechanisms of silibinin phosphatidylcholine (silybin-phytosome) on established prostate tumors in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Twenty-week-old TRAMP male mice having palpable prostate tumor were fed with control or 0.5% and 1%, w/w, silybin-phytosome diets for 11 weeks and then sacrificed. Dietary silibinin inhibited the growth of prostate tumors (up to 60%, P < 0.001) and suppressed tumor progression from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to differentiated adenocarcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with a complete absence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma at higher doses. It also inhibited the incidence of tumor invasion of seminal vesicle (up to 81%, P < 0.001) with complete absence of distant metastasis. Silibinin moderately inhibited tumor cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, but strongly suppressed tumor microvessel density (up to 60%, P < 0.001), vascular endothelial growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression. Antibody array analysis of plasma showed a decrease in the circulatory levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), snail-1, and vimentin, and an increased level of E-cadherin were also observed, indicating the anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition effect of silibinin in tumors. Overall, silibinin treatment of TRAMP mice bearing prostate tumor inhibited tumor growth, progression, local invasion, and distant metastasis involving suppression of tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These findings would have greater relevance for the ongoing phase II clinical trial with silibinin-phytosome in prostate cancer patients.Clinical Cancer Research 01/2009; 14(23):7773-80. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe here a system for culturing epithelial cells isolated from hamster trachea, which results in a highly enriched population of mucus-secreting cells. The culture system has enabled us to study the process of secretory cell differentiation in vitro. We found that epithelial secretory cells, in vivo and after 5 days in vitro, selectively bind the lectin Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) to apical and, to a lesser extent, basolateral surfaces as well as to mucin granules and intracellular secretory organelles. SDS-PAGE gels of detergent extracts of secretory cells cultured for 5 days reveal three HPA-binding glycoproteins with MW of 120 KD, 220 KD, and greater than 400 KD. The high-MW glycoprotein appears identical to mucin, since it is found in secretions from intact trachea and in spent media from 5-day cultures. It does not appear in spent media from 3-day cultures when cells contain few mucous granules and secrete little mucin. The 220 KD HPA-binding glycoprotein is also present in 5-day but not in 3-day cultures. In contrast, the 120 KD glycoprotein is present at both times. HPA-gp120 is a hydrophobic integral membrane protein, whereas HPA-gp220 and mucin are hydrophilic and are membrane associated. These studies define three membrane glycoproteins, one of which is specific for the tracheal epithelial secretory cell regardless of its mucous content, whereas the other two glycoproteins correlate with mucin secretion. They also demonstrate that, in the fully differentiated state, mucin is bound in a non-covalent fashion to the apical plasma membrane of the tracheal epithelial secretory cell.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 03/1988; 36(2):167-78. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Silibinin as an effective anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent in various epithelial cancer models has been reported inhibition of cancer cell growth through mitogenic signaling pathways. However, whether it could inhibit renal cell carcinoma growth and what are the underlying mechanisms is still not well elucidated. Since EGFR-MAPK and apoptosis pathways play important roles in renal cell carcinoma survival. Here, for the first time we evaluated the inhibitory proliferation effects of silibinin in renal cell carcinoma growth and examined whether silibinin modulates EGFR-MAPK and tumor apoptosis cascades signals. Our results indicated that silibinin effectively inhibits the renal cancer carcinoma Caki-1 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through inhibiting the activation of EGFR and ERK and the expression of survivin, up-regulating the expression of p53 and triggering the cascades of caspase pathways. Our results suggested silibinin might be as one of the candidate chemopreventive agents for renal cell carcinoma therapy.Cancer letters 09/2008; 272(1):61-9. · 4.86 Impact Factor