Inversion of stereoselectivity: screening of a minimal mutant library revealed a cytochrome P450 BM3 variant M01 A82W S72I capable of producing 16 α-OH-testosterone. Remarkably, a single active site mutation S72I in M01 A82W inverted the stereoselectivity of hydroxylation from 16 β to 16 α. Introduction of S72I mutation in another 16 β-OH-selective variant M11 V87I, also resulted in similar inversion of stereoselectivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Directed evolution of the monooxygenase P450-BM3 utilizing iterative saturation mutagenesis at and near the binding site enables a high degree of both regio- and enantioselectivity in the oxidative hydroxylation of cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester. Wild-type P450-BM3 is 84% regioselective for the allylic 3-position with 34% enantioselectivity in favor of the R alcohol. Mutants enabling R selectivity (>95% ee) or S selectivity (>95% ee) were evolved, while reducing other oxidation products and thus maximizing regioselectivity to >93%. Control of the substrate-to-enzyme ratio is necessary for obtaining optimal and reproducible enantioselectivities, an observation which is important in future protein engineering of these mono-oxygenases. An E. coli strain capable of NADPH regeneration was also engineered, simplifying directed evolution of P450 enzymes in general. These synthetic results set the stage for subsequent stereoselective and stereospecific chemical transformations to form more complex compounds, thereby illustrating the viability of combining genetically altered enzymes as catalysts in organic chemistry with traditional chemical methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selective hydroxylation of an unactivated CH bond is a crucial step in the synthesis of fine chemicals such as hydroxylated terpenoids. In the present study, the ability of 40 cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants to perform the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of α-ionone has been investigated. Based on their activity and selectivity to produce 3-hydroxy-α-ionone from racemic α-ionone, 6 BM3 mutants were selected. Out of these, 3 mutants (M01 A82W, M11 A82W and M11 V87I) showed high selectivity for trans-3-hydroxy-α-ionone formation while 3 other mutants (M11 L437N, M11 L437S and M11 L437T) formed almost equal amounts of both cis-3-hydroxy- and trans-3-hydroxy-α-ionone. Incubation with individual enantiomers showed that M11 L437N, M11 L437S and M11 L437T exhibited opposite stereoselectivity producing (3S,6S)-hydroxy-α-ionone with the (6S)-enantiomer and (3S,6R)-hydroxy-α-ionone with the (6R)-enantiomer. Thus for the first time, BM3 mutants that can selectively produce diastereomers of 3-hydroxy-α-ionone (>90% de), with high turnover numbers and minimal secondary metabolism, have been identified. Docking studies have been performed to rationalize the basis of the experimentally observed selectivity. In conclusion, engineered P450 BM3s are promising biocatalysts for regio- and stereoselective production of hydroxylated α-ionones for industrial applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selective oxyfunctionalization of isolated sp(3) C-H bonds in complex molecules represents a formidable challenge in organic chemistry. Here, we describe a rational, systematic strategy to expedite the development of P450 oxidation catalysts with refined regio- and stereoselectivity for the hydroxylation of remote, unactivated C-H sites in a complex scaffold. Using artemisinin as model substrate, we demonstrate how a three-tier strategy involving first-sphere active site mutagenesis, high-throughput P450 fingerprinting, and fingerprint-driven P450 reactivity predictions enabled the rapid evolution of three efficient biocatalysts for the selective hydroxylation of a primary and a secondary C-H site (with both S and R stereoselectivity) in a relevant yet previously inaccessible region of this complex natural product. The evolved P450 variants could be applied to provide direct access to the desired hydroxylated derivatives at preparative scales (0.4 g) and in high isolated yields (>90%), thereby enabling further elaboration of this molecule. As an example, enantiopure C7-fluorinated derivatives of the clinical antimalarial drugs artesunate and artemether, in which a major metabolically sensitive site is protected by means of a C-H to C-F substitution, were afforded via P450-mediated chemoenzymatic synthesis.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2012; 134(45). DOI:10.1021/ja3073462 · 12.11 Impact Factor
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