A single active site mutation inverts stereoselectivity of 16-hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by engineered cytochrome P450 BM3.
ABSTRACT Inversion of stereoselectivity: screening of a minimal mutant library revealed a cytochrome P450 BM3 variant M01 A82W S72I capable of producing 16 α-OH-testosterone. Remarkably, a single active site mutation S72I in M01 A82W inverted the stereoselectivity of hydroxylation from 16 β to 16 α. Introduction of S72I mutation in another 16 β-OH-selective variant M11 V87I, also resulted in similar inversion of stereoselectivity.
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ABSTRACT: A minimal CYP102A1 mutant library of only 24 variants plus wild type was constructed by combining five hydrophobic amino acids (alanine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine and isoleucine) in two positions. Both positions are located close to the centre of the haem group. The first, position 87, has been shown to mediate substrate specificity and regioselectivity in CYP102A1. The second hotspot, position 328, was predicted to interact with all substrates during oxidation and has previously been identified by systematic analysis of 31 crystal structures and 6300 sequences of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. By systematically altering the size of the side chains, a broad range of binding site shapes was generated. All variants were functionally expressed in E. coli. The library was screened with four terpene substrates geranylacetone, nerylacetone, (4R)-limonene and (+)-valencene. Only three variants showed no activity towards all four terpenes, while eleven variants demonstrated either a strong shift or improved regio- or stereoselectivity during oxidation of at least one substrate as compared to CYP102A1 wild type.ChemBioChem 03/2009; 10(5):853-61. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have converted cytochrome P450 BM-3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 BM-3), a medium-chain (C12-C18) fatty acid monooxygenase, into a highly efficient catalyst for the conversion of alkanes to alcohols. The evolved P450 BM-3 exhibits higher turnover rates than any reported biocatalyst for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons of small to medium chain length (C3-C8). Unlike naturally occurring alkane hydroxylases, the best known of which are the large complexes of methane monooxygenase (MMO) and membrane-associated non-heme iron alkane monooxygenase (AlkB), the evolved enzyme is monomeric, soluble, and requires no additional proteins for catalysis. The evolved alkane hydroxylase was found to be even more active on fatty acids than wild-type BM-3, which was already one of the most efficient fatty acid monooxgenases known. A broad range of substrates including the gaseous alkane propane induces the low to high spin shift that activates the enzyme. This catalyst for alkane hydroxylation at room temperature opens new opportunities for clean, selective hydrocarbon activation for chemical synthesis and bioremediation.Nature Biotechnology 12/2002; 20(11):1135-9. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CYP102s represent a family of natural self-sufficient fusions of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase found in some bacteria. One member of this family, named CYP102A1 or more traditionally P450BM-3, has been widely studied as a model of human P450 cytochromes. Remarkable detail of P450 structure and function has been revealed using this highly efficient enzyme. The recent rapid expansion of microbial genome sequences has revealed many relatives of CYP102A1, but to date only two from Bacillus subtilis have been characterized. We report here the cloning and expression of CYP102A5, a new member of this family that is very closely related to CYP102A4 from Bacillus anthracis. Characterization of the substrate specificity of CYP102A5 shows that it, like the other CYP102s, will metabolize saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as well as N-acylamino acids. CYP102A5 catalyzes very fast substrate oxidation, showing one of the highest turnover rates for any P450 monooxygenase studied so far. It does so with more specificity than other CYP102s, yielding primarily omega-1 and omega-2 hydroxylated products. Measurement of the rate of electron transfer through the reductase domain reveals that it is significantly faster in CYP102A5 than in CYP102A1, providing a likely explanation for the increased monooxygenation rate. The availability of this new, very fast fusion P450 will provide a great tool for comparative structure-function studies between CYP102A5 and the other characterized CYP102s.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 01/2008; 468(1):32-43. · 3.37 Impact Factor