Reinforcement of electrospun membranes using nanoscale Al2O3 whiskers for improved tissue scaffolds
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a promising material for tissue engineering applications; however, it can be difficult to create scaffolds with the morphology, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties necessary to support tissue growth. Typically, pure PCL scaffolds have good cellular adhesion, but somewhat low mechanical properties (elastic modulus and tensile strength). This study addresses these issues by incorporating Al(2)O(3) whiskers as reinforcements within PCL membranes generated by electrospinning. Membranes were prepared with Al(2)O(3) content ranging from 1 to 20 wt % and characterized using XRD, TEM, and SEM to determine composition and morphology. The Al(2)O(3) whiskers were well dispersed within the PCL fibers, and the membranes had a highly porous morphology. The elastic modulus was significantly improved by the well aligned whisker reinforcements as verified by tensile testing. The cell morphology and proliferation studies demonstrate Al(2)O(3) whisker reinforced PCL scaffolds maintained the good biocompatibility. These improvements demonstrate that Al(2)O(3) whisker reinforced PCL scaffolds can be considered as a biocompatible material for tissue engineering and dental applications.
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Available from: Yili Zhao
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ABSTRACT: Electrospinning is a powerful technique to produce fibers with a diameter ranging from tens of nanometers to several micrometers. Compared with single-component nanofibers, composite or hybrid nanofibers are promising due to the unique properties possessed by both the host and the guest materials. Doping nanoparticles (NPs) or nanotubes (NTs) have excellent optical, mechanical, electrical or catalytic properties within polymer nanofibers, which makes it possible to produce functional nanofibers with promising applications. In this review, followed by a brief introduction of basic theory of electrospinning techniques, we give a literature survey of the NP- or NT-doped electrospun polymer nanofibers in terms of the producing methods and potential applications in the fields of tissue engineering, wound dressing and drug-delivery systems. Some of the aspects related to the improved protein adsorption capability, mechanical durability and, thus, improved cell attachment and proliferation of the NT-doped polymer nanofibers, as well as the significantly decreased burst-release profile of the NT-doped polymer nanofibers used as drug-delivery systems are discussed.
Therapeutic delivery 10/2012; 3(10):1155-69. DOI:10.4155/tde.12.103
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Biomaterials that mimic the nanofibrous architecture of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) are in the focus for stem cell hosting or delivery in tissue engineering of multilayered soft tissues such as skin, mucosa, or retina. Synthetic nanofibers for such ECM are usually produced by single-syringe electrospinning with only one needle-jet at very low production rates of 0.005-0.008 g·min⁻¹. The aim of this study was to utilize a novel industrial needle-free multijet electrospinning device with the potential for mass production of nanofibrous ECM (NF-ECM) exhibiting a controlled three-dimensional (3D) morphology for large-scale applications such as large area skin regeneration in patients with burns.
The novel NanoSpider™ NS200, an industrial apparatus originally designed for electrospinning of nanofibrous textile meshes, was used to fabricate 3D NF-ECMs of the following synthetic and natural biopolymers: collagen, gelatin, poly(caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Different concentrations of Gelatin polymer solution were electrospun under varying processing conditions, namely speed of spinning electrode rotation (u) and electric field intensity (E) by altering applied voltage (v) or the distance between electrodes (h) to achieve homogeneous desirable 3D morphology. Nanofiber diameters were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biocompatibility was tested by WST-1 (water-soluble tetrazolium salt) proliferation assay of seeded human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs). Biological performance of HMSCs on 3D PLGA NF-ECM was compared to two-dimensional (2D) PLGA film controls via SEM and confocal microscopy. Western blotting addressed the expression of surface adhesion proteins; focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphorylated FAK (pY397), α-tubulin, paxillin, vinculin. and integrin subunits; α5, αv, and β1 proteins.
Large-scale mass production of NF-ECM membranes with a highly homogenous nanofiber morphology and 3D architecture could be produced with an extremely high production rate of 0.394±0.013 g·min⁻¹·m⁻¹ when compared to standard procedures. This was achieved by electrospinning a 20% (wt)/v gelatin solution, in an electric field intensity of 0.381 kV·mm⁻¹. The nanofibers possessed diameters of around 180±40 nm with 28% deviation. HSMCs proliferation was significantly improved on NF-ECMs derived from collagen, gelatin, and PLGA when compared to PCL or flat coverglass controls (p<0.01). PLGA NF-ECM in 3D nanofibrous architecture possessed significantly superior biocompatibility when compared to flat 2D PLGA film (p<0.05). Furthermore, on 3D PLGA NF-ECMs, HSMCs expressed a higher amount of α-tubulin and paxillin compared to the HMSCs cultured on a 2D PLGA film (p<0.05). HMSCs exhibited a complex multifaceted morphology on all NF-ECMs, where cells appeared to be integrated into the 3D NF-ECMs niches with complex cell filopodia extending into to all directions. In contrast, HMSCs on flat 2D films of the same materials or on coverglass displayed a simple flattened, monolayered structure.
Needle-free multijet electrospinning can be used to mass produce artificial ECMs with intrinsic biocompatibility and desirable integration of stem cells for large-scale applications.
Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 10/2012; 19(6). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEC.2012.0417 · 4.64 Impact Factor
Available from: Mohammed Abedalwafa
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ABSTRACT: Biodegradable polymers have been used in biomedical applications generally, and in
tissue engineering especially, due to good physical and biological properties. Poly-epsiloncaprolactone
(PCL) is a one of biodegradable polymers, which has a long time of degradation.
But the mechanical properties, biodegradability and biocompatibility of the pure PCL cannot
meet up with the requirement for some of the biomedical applications such as bone tissue
engineering, for that many researches have established to focus on the modification of the PCL.
In this review, different results on the fabrication of PCL for specific field of tissue engineering,
tissue engineering incorporated in different PCL, surface modifications, blending with other
polymers and their micro-porous structure are represented in brief outcomes. In addition
dissolution of PCL in different organic solvents and the effect on their properties was attainable.
Moreover, the physical and biological properties of PCL for different type of tissue engineering
applications (hard and soft tissue) are obtainable.
Reviews on Advanced Materials Science 12/2012; 34(2):123-140. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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