Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Tobacco control (Impact Factor: 3.85). 01/2012; DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050203
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. OBJECTIVE: To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2009, the authors recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to five employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). RESULTS: Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5-8.5) μg/m(3) and 0.2 (0.1-0.7) μg/m(3) in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6-16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5-5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a twofold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% CI 23% to 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2% to 19%) increase in smoking employees. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We compared exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes toward smoke-free bar and nightclub policies among patrons of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and non-LGBT bars and nightclubs. Methods. We conducted randomized time-location sampling surveys of young adults (aged 21-30 years) in 7 LGBT (n = 1113 patrons) and 12 non-LGBT (n = 1068 patrons) venues in Las Vegas, Nevada, in 2011, as part of a cross-sectional study of a social branding intervention to promote a tobacco-free lifestyle and environment in bars and nightclubs. Results. Compared with non-LGBT bars and nightclubs, patrons of LGBT venues had 38% higher adjusted odds of having been exposed to SHS in a bar or nightclub in the past 7 days but were no less likely to support smoke-free policies and intended to go out at least as frequently if a smoke-free bar and nightclub law was passed. Conclusions. The policy environment in LGBT bars and nightclubs appears favorable for the enactment of smoke-free policies, which would protect patrons from SHS and promote a smoke-free social norm. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print December 12, 2013: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301657).
    American Journal of Public Health 12/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008, the Portuguese smoke-free law came into effect including partial bans in the leisure-hospitality (LH) sector. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of smoking control policies (total ban, smoking permission and designated smoking areas) adopted by the LH sector in Portugal. The levels of noncompliance with each policy are investigated as well as the main factors associated with smoking permission and noncompliance with the law.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e102421. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relative contribution of occupational vs. non-occupational secondhand tobacco smoke exposure to overall hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking bar and restaurant employees. We recruited 76 non-smoking employees from venues that allowed smoking (n=9), had mixed policies (smoking and non-smoking areas, n=13) or were smoke-free (n=2) between April and August 2008 in Santiago, Chile. Employees used personal air nicotine samplers during working and non-working hours for a 24-h period to assess occupational vs. non-occupational secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and hair nicotine concentrations to assess overall secondhand tobacco smoke exposure. Median hair nicotine concentrations were 1.5ng/mg, interquartile range (IQR) 0.7 to 5.2ng/mg. Time weighted average personal air nicotine concentrations were higher during working hours (median 9.7, IQR 3.3-25.4µg/m(3)) compared to non-working hours (1.7, 1.0-3.1µg/m(3)). Hair nicotine concentration was best predicted by personal air nicotine concentration at working hours. After adjustment, a 2-fold increase in personal air nicotine concentration in working hours was associated with a 42% increase in hair nicotine concentration (95% confidence interval 14-70%). Hair nicotine concentration was not associated with personal air nicotine concentration during non-working hours (non-occupational exposure). Personal air nicotine concentration at working hours was the major determinant of hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees from Santiago, Chile. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure during working hours is a health hazard for hospitality employees working in venues where smoking is allowed.
    Environmental Research 05/2014; 132C:206-211. · 3.24 Impact Factor

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