Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. OBJECTIVE: To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2009, the authors recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to five employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). RESULTS: Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5-8.5) μg/m(3) and 0.2 (0.1-0.7) μg/m(3) in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6-16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5-5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a twofold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% CI 23% to 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2% to 19%) increase in smoking employees. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.
- Environmental Science and Technology 05/1987; 21(5):494-7. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bar and restaurant workers' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) was compared before and 3 and 6 months after implementation of a smoke-free ordinance. Hair nicotine, self-reported exposure to SHS, and respiratory symptoms were assessed on 105 smoking and nonsmoking workers from randomly selected establishments in Lexington, Kentucky. Thirty-eight percent were current smokers with more than half smoking 10 or fewer cigarettes per day. Workers provided a hair sample at baseline and at the 3-month interview. There was a significant decline in hair nicotine 3 months postlaw when controlling for cigarettes smoked per day. Bar workers showed a significantly larger decline in hair nicotine compared with restaurant workers. The only significant decline in SHS exposure was in the workplace and other public places. Regardless of smoking status, respiratory symptoms declined significantly postlaw. Hospitality workers demonstrated significant declines in hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms after the law. Comprehensive smoke-free laws can provide the greatest protection to bar workers who are the most vulnerable to SHS exposure at work.Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 10/2006; 48(9):906-13. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is uncertainty regarding the association of occupational exposures with lung cancer. We have studied the association between 52 high-risk job titles and lung cancer incidence in a large prospective study, with more than 200,000 participants followed for more than 6 years and 809 incident cases of lung cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed by the Cox proportional-hazard regression model, adjusting for country, age, sex, social class, diet, physical activity, and smoking habits. We used a CAREX-based job-exposure matrix to infer exposure to lung carcinogens. False-positive report probability was calculated as a measure of potentially false-positive results. Eighteen occupations, mainly related with agriculture, constructions, and metal processing, were associated with increased risk. In addition, incidence tended to increase with the number of hazardous jobs reported. When the occupations were classified according to the presumed exposure to specific carcinogenic agents, the hazard ratios were 1.5 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-1.9) for asbestos, 1.4 (1.1-1.8) for heavy metals, 1.4 (1.1-1.8) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) for work-related environmental tobacco smoke. The estimated population attributable risk for employment in at least 1 at-risk job was 16% in men and 12% in women. This large prospective study suggests that exposure to occupational lung carcinogens is still a problem, with such exposures producing moderate to large increases in risk.Epidemiology 12/2007; 18(6):769-75. · 5.74 Impact Factor