Targeting phospho-Ser422 by active Tau Immunotherapy in the THYTau22 mouse model: a suitable therapeutic approach.
ABSTRACT Recent data indicate that Tau immunotherapy may be relevant for interfering with neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer disease and related disorders referred to as Tauopathies. The key question for immunotherapy is the choice of the epitope to target. Abnormal phosphorylation is a well-described post-translational modification of Tau proteins and may be a good target. In the present study, we investigated the effects of active immunization against the pathological epitope phospho-Ser422 in the THY-Tau22 transgenic mouse model. Starting from 3-6 months of age, THY-Tau22 mice develop hippocampal neurofibrillary tangle-like inclusions and exhibit phosphorylation of Tau on several AD-relevant Tau epitopes. Three month-old THY-Tau22 mice were immunized with a peptide including the phosphoserine 422 residue while control mice received the adjuvant alone. A specific antibody response against the phospho-Ser422 epitope was observed. We noticed a decrease in insoluble Tau species (AT100- and pS422 immunoreactive) by both biochemical and immunohistochemical means correlated with a significant cognitive improvement using the Y-maze. This Tau immunotherapy may facilitate Tau clearance from the brain toward the periphery since, following immunization, an increase in Tau concentrations was observed in blood. Overall, the present work is, to our knowledge, the first one to demonstrate that active immunotherapy targeting a real pathological epitope such as phospho-Ser422 epitope is efficient. This immunotherapy allows for Tau clearance and improves cognitive deficits promoted by Tau pathology in a well-defined Tau transgenic model.
Article: Tau immunization: a cautionary tale?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The amyloid β (Aβ)-protein and microtubule-associated protein, tau, are the major components of the amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that typify Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. As such both Aβ and tau have long been proposed as therapeutic targets. Immunotherapy, particularly targeting Aβ, is currently the most advanced clinical strategy for treating AD. However, several Aβ-directed clinical trials have failed, and there is concern that targeting this protein may not be useful. In contrast, there is a growing optimism that tau immunotherapy may prove more efficacious. Here, for the first time, we studied the effects of chronic administration of an anti-tau monoclonal antibody (5E2) in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. For our animal model, we chose the J20 mouse line because prior studies had shown that the cognitive deficits in these mice require expression of tau. Despite the fact that 5E2 was present and active in the brains of immunized mice and that this antibody appeared to engage with extracellular tau, 5E2-treatment did not recover age-dependent spatial reference memory deficits. These results indicate that the memory impairment evident in J20 mice is unlikely to be mediated by a form of extracellular tau recognized by 5E2. In addition to the lack of positive effect of anti-tau immunotherapy, we also documented a significant increase in mortality among J20 mice that received 5E2. Because both the J20 mice used here and tau transgenic mice used in prior tau immunotherapy trials are imperfect models of AD our results recommend extensive preclinical testing of anti-tau antibody-based therapies using multiple mouse models and a variety of different anti-tau antibodies.Neurobiology of Aging 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.11.022 · 4.85 Impact Factor
Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2013; 9(4):P142. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.04.090 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective We previously found a strong reduction in tau pathology and insoluble tau in P301S tau transgenic mice following intracerebroventricular infusion of the anti-tau antibody HJ8.5. We sought to determine the effects of HJ8.5 in the same model following peripheral administration.Methods The primary objective was to determine if HJ8.5 administered at a dose of 50 mg kg−1 week−1 by intraperitoneal (IP) injection to 6-month-old P301S mice for 3 months would influence phospho-tau (p-tau) accumulation, tau insolubility, and neurodegeneration.ResultsTreatment with HJ8.5 at 50 mg/kg showed a very strong decrease in detergent-insoluble tau. Importantly, HJ8.5 significantly reduced the loss of cortical and hippocampal tissue volumes compared to control treated mice. HJ8.5 treatment reduced hippocampal CA1 cellular layer staining with the p-tau antibody AT8 and thio-S-positive tau aggregates in piriform cortex and amygdala. Moreover, mice treated with HJ8.5 at 50 mg/kg showed a decrease in motor/sensorimotor deficits compared to vehicle-treated mice. Some effects of HJ8.5, including reduction in brain atrophy, and p-tau immunostaining were also seen with a dose of 10 mg kg−1 week−1. In BV2-microglial cells, we observed significantly higher uptake of P301S tau aggregates in the presence of HJ8.5. HJ8.5 treatment also resulted in a large dose-dependent increase of tau in the plasma.InterpretationOur results indicate that systemically administered anti-tau antibody HJ8.5 significantly decreases insoluble tau, decreases brain atrophy, and improves motor/sensorimotor function in a mouse model of tauopathy. These data further support the idea that anti-tau antibodies should be further assessed as a potential treatment for tauopathies.03/2015; 2(3). DOI:10.1002/acn3.176