Article

HERC6 is the main E3 ligase for global ISG15 conjugation in mouse cells.

Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2012; 7(1):e29870. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029870
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Type I interferon (IFN) stimulates expression and conjugation of the ubiquitin-like modifier IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), thereby restricting replication of a wide variety of viruses. Conjugation of ISG15 is critical for its antiviral activity in mice. HECT domain and RCC1-like domain containing protein 5 (HerC5) mediates global ISGylation in human cells, whereas its closest relative, HerC6, does not. So far, the requirement of HerC5 for ISG15-mediated antiviral activity has remained unclear. One of the main obstacles to address this issue has been that no HerC5 homologue exists in mice, hampering the generation of a good knock-out model. However, mice do express a homologue of HerC6 that, in contrast to human HerC6, can mediate ISGylation.Here we report that the mouse HerC6 N-terminal RCC1-like domain (RLD) allows ISG15 conjugation when replacing the corresponding domain in the human HerC6 homologue. In addition, sequences in the C-terminal HECT domain of mouse HerC6 also appear to facilitate efficient ISGylation. Mouse HerC6 paralleled human HerC5 in localization and IFN-inducibility. Moreover, HerC6 knock-down in mouse cells abolished global ISGylation, whereas its over expression enhanced the IFNβ promoter and conferred antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus and Newcastle disease virus. Together these data indicate that HerC6 is likely the functional counterpart of human HerC5 in mouse cells, suggesting that HerC6(-/-) mice may provide a feasible model to study the role of human HerC5 in antiviral responses.

Full-text

Available from: Maite Sánchez-Aparicio, Feb 04, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
103 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ISG15 conjugation (ISGylation) to proteins is a multistep process involving interferon (IFN)-inducible UBE1L (E1), UbcH8 (E2), and ISG15 E3 ligases (E3s). Studies performed over the past several years have shown that ISGylation plays a pivotal role in the host antiviral response against certain viruses. Recent in vitro studies revealed that human Herc5 and mouse Herc6 are major ISG15 E3 ligases, respectively. However, the global function of Herc5/6 proteins in vivo still remains unclear. Here, we report generation and initial characterization of Herc6 knockout mice. Substantial reductions of ISGylation were observed in Herc6-deficient cells after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid double-stranded RNA injection of mice or IFN treatment of cells. On the other hand, Herc6-deficient cells and wild-type (WT) cells had similar responses to IFN stimulation, Sendai virus (Z strain) infection, and vesicular stomatitis virus infection. These results indicate that Herc6 does not play a critical role in antiviral defense of these viral infections in mice. Interestingly, male Herc6-deficient mice showed seminal vesicle hypertrophy. No such problem was detected in WT and ISG15 activating enzyme Ube1L-deficient mice. These results suggest that in addition to promoting protein ISGylation, Herc6 has a novel and protein ISGylation-independent function in the male reproductive system.
    Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 11/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1089/jir.2014.0113 · 3.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ISG15 is a diubiquitin-like modifier and one of the most rapidly induced genes upon type I interferon stimulation. Hundreds of host proteins and a number of viral proteins have been shown to be ISGylated, and understanding how these modifications affect the interferon response and virus replication has been of considerable interest. ISG15(-/-) mice exhibit increased susceptibility to viral infection, and in the case of influenza B virus and vaccinia virus, ISG15 conjugation has been shown to restrict virus replication in vivo. A number of studies have also found that ISG15 is capable of antagonizing replication of some viruses in tissue culture. However, recent findings have demonstrated that ISG15 can protect mice from Chikungunya virus infection without affecting virus burden. In order to better understand the function of ISG15 in vivo, we characterized the pathogenesis of influenza A virus and Sendai virus in ISG15(-/-) mice. We found that ISG15 protects mice from virus induced lethality by a conjugation dependent mechanism in both of these models. However, surprisingly, we found that ISG15 had minimal effect on virus replication, and did not have an obvious role in the modulation of the acute immune response to infection. Instead, we observed an increase in the number of diseased small airways in mice lacking ISG15. This ability of ISG15 to protect mice in a conjugation-dependent, but non-antiviral, manner from respiratory virus infection represents a previously undescribed role for ISG15 and demonstrates the importance of further characterization of ISG15 in vivo.
    Journal of Virology 10/2014; 89(1). DOI:10.1128/JVI.02110-14 · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein modification by the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 is an interferon (IFN) effector system, which plays a major role in antiviral defense. ISG15 modification is counteracted by the isopeptidase USP18, a major negative regulator of IFN signaling, which was also shown to exert its regulatory function in an isopeptidase-indepen-dent manner. To dissect enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions of USP18 in vivo, we generated knock-in mice (USP18 C61A/C61A
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2015; 112(5). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1412881112 · 9.81 Impact Factor