IMWG consensus on maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma.

Department of Medicine I, Center for Oncology and Hematology, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 01/2012; 119(13):3003-15. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-11-374249
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Maintaining results of successful induction therapy is an important goal in multiple myeloma. Here, members of the International Myeloma Working Group review the relevant data. Thalidomide maintenance therapy after autologous stem cell transplantation improved the quality of response and increased progression-free survival (PFS) significantly in all 6 studies and overall survival (OS) in 3 of them. In elderly patients, 2 trials showed a significant prolongation of PFS, but no improvement in OS. A meta-analysis revealed a significant risk reduction for PFS/event-free survival and death. The role of thalidomide maintenance after melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide is not well established. Two trials with lenalidomide maintenance treatment after autologous stem cell transplantation and one study after conventional melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide induction therapy showed a significant risk reduction for PFS and an increase in OS in one of the transplant trials. Maintenance therapy with single-agent bortezomib or in combination with thalidomide or prednisone has been studied. One trial revealed a significantly increased OS with a bortezomib-based induction and bortezomib maintenance therapy compared with conventional induction and thalidomide maintenance treatment. Maintenance treatment can be associated with significant side effects, and none of the drugs evaluated is approved for maintenance therapy. Treatment decisions for individual patients must balance potential benefits and risks carefully, as a widely agreed-on standard is not established.

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    ABSTRACT: Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is the standard of care in transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients and is associated with significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), complete remission rates (CR), and overall survival (OS). However, majority of patients eventually relapse, with a median PFS of around 36 months. Relapses are harder to treat and prognosis declines with each relapse. Achieving and maintaining "best response" to initial therapy is the ultimate goal of first-line treatment and sustained CR is a powerful surrogate for extended survival especially in high-risk multiple myeloma. ASCT is often followed by consolidation/maintenance phase to deepen and/or maintain the response achieved by induction and ASCT. Novel agents like thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib have been used as single agents or in combination. Thalidomide use has been associated with a meaningful improvement in PFS and EFS, however, with substantial side effects. Data with lenalidomide maintenance after-ASCT is favorable, but the optimal duration of lenalidomide maintenance is still unclear. Bortezomib use has been associated with superior outcomes, predominantly in high-risk myeloma patients. Combination regimens utilizing a proteasome inhibitor (i.e., bortezomib) with an immunomodulatory drug (thalidomide or lenalidomide) have provided the best outcomes. This review article serves as a review of the best available evidence in post-ASCT approaches in multiple myeloma.
    Advances in Hematology 11/2014; 2014:652395. DOI:10.1155/2014/652395
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    ABSTRACT: Outcome of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has greatly improved with the use of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and new agents, such as immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide and lenalidomide) and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib). When compared to conventional chemotherapy, high-dose melphalan with ASCT significantly improved response rates and progression-free survival, while overall survival benefit was not consistent across all trials. ASCT is considered the standard treatment for patients who are younger than 65 years and who do not have limiting comorbidities. New, effective agents have been introduced as part of induction, consolidation and maintenance treatments within ASCT and in combinations with chemotherapy for patients not eligible for ASCT. The remarkable results obtained with these regimens are questioning the role of ASCT for newly diagnosed MM patients. This article aims to delineate the role of ASCT in the era of novel agents based on the results of recent clinical trials.
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundDNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed by macrophages/dendritic cells and by T lymphocytes and Natural Killer (NK) cells, having an important role in anticancer responses; in this regard, combination therapies able to enhance the expression of DNAM-1 ligands on tumor cells are of therapeutic interest. In this study, we investigated the effect of different nitric oxide (NO) donors on the expression of the DNAM-1 ligand Poliovirus Receptor/CD155 (PVR/CD155) in multiple myeloma (MM) cells.Methods Six MM cell lines, SKO-007(J3), U266, OPM-2, RPMI-8226, ARK and LP1 were used to investigate the activity of different nitric oxide donors [DETA-NO and the NO-releasing prodrugs NCX4040 (NO-aspirin) and JS-K] on the expression of PVR/CD155, using Flow Cytometry and Real-Time PCR. Western-blot and specific inhibitors were employed to investigate the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP and activation of the DNA damage response (DDR).ResultsOur results indicate that increased levels of nitric oxide can upregulate PVR/CD155 cell surface and mRNA expression in MM cells; in addition, exposure to nitric oxide donors renders myeloma cells more efficient to activate NK cell degranulation and enhances their ability to trigger NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that activation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase and increased cGMP concentrations by nitric oxide is not involved in the up-regulation of ligand expression. On the contrary, treatment of MM cells with nitric oxide donors correlated with the activation of a DNA damage response pathway and inhibition of the ATM /ATR/Chk1/2 kinase activities by specific inhibitors significantly abrogates up-regulation.Conclusions The present study provide evidence that regulation of the PVR/CD155 DNAM-1 ligand expression by nitric oxide may represent an additional immune-mediated mechanism and support the anti-myeloma activity of nitric oxide donors.
    BMC Cancer 01/2015; 15(1):17. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1023-5 · 3.32 Impact Factor


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May 26, 2014