Oncologic applications of diffusion-weighted MRI in the body
ABSTRACT Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) allows the detection of malignancies in the abdomen and pelvis. Lesion detection and characterization using DWI largely depends on the increased cellularity of solid or cystic lesions compared with the surrounding tissue. This increased cellularity leads results in restricted diffusion as indicated by reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Low pretreatment ADC values of several malignancies have been shown to be predictive of better outcome. DWI can assess response to systemic or regional treatment of cancer at a cellular level and will therefore detect successful treatment earlier than anatomical measures. In this review, we provide a brief technical overview of DWI, discuss quantitative image analysis approaches, and review studies which have used DWI for the purpose of detection and characterization of malignancies as well as the early prediction of treatment response.
SourceAvailable from: Subramaniyan Ramanathan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ObjectivesAlthough rectal cancer is by far and large the most common pathology involving the rectum that needs imaging, there are many other important but less common pathological conditions affecting anorectal region. The objective of this pictorial review is to discuss the cross-sectional imaging features of less common anorectal and perirectal diseases.ResultsAlthough a specific histological diagnosis cannot usually be made due to considerable overlap in the imaging appearances of anorectal diseases, this review illustrates the cross-sectional imaging findings with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can help in narrowing down the differentials to a reasonable extent.Teaching points• Variety of pathology exists in the anorectum apart from common rectal carcinoma• Anorectal diseases present as non-specific wall thickening indistinguishable from rectal carcinoma• Computed tomography (CT) and MRI can help in narrowing down the differentials, although often biopsy is warranted.07/2014; 5(4). DOI:10.1007/s13244-014-0347-z
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ABSTRACT: Modern radiologic imaging is an aid to treatment planning for localized renal cancer, enabling characterization of mass lesions. For patients who present with advanced renal cancer, new imaging techniques enable a functional assessment of treatment response not possible using anatomic measurements alone. Multidetector CT urography permits simultaneous assessment of the kidneys and urinary tract for patients with unexplained hematuria. Both CT and MRI play a significant role in staging and follow up of patients treated for urothelial cancer. Newer imaging methods such as diffusion-weighted MRI have shown promising results for improving accuracy of staging and follow up of urothelial cancer.Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 10/2014; 23(4). DOI:10.1016/j.soc.2014.06.001 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Assessment of the response to treatment of metastases is crucial in daily oncological practice and clinical trials. For soft tissue metastases, this is done using computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using validated response evaluation criteria. Bone metastases, which frequently represent the only site of metastases, are an exception in response assessment systems, because of the nature of the fixed bony defects, their complexity, which ranges from sclerotic to osteolytic and because of the lack of sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution of the previously available bone imaging methods, mainly bone scintigraphy. Techniques such as MRI and PET are able to detect the early infiltration of the bone marrow by cancer, and to quantify this infiltration using morphologic images, quantitative parameters and functional approaches. This paper highlights the most recent developments of MRI and PET, showing how they enable early detection of bone lesions and monitoring of their response. It reviews current knowledge, puts the different techniques into perspective, in terms of indications, strengths, weaknesses and complementarity, and finally proposes recommendations for the choice of the most adequate imaging technique.European Journal of Cancer 10/2014; 50(15). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.07.002 · 4.82 Impact Factor