Oncologic applications of diffusion-weighted MRI in the body
ABSTRACT Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) allows the detection of malignancies in the abdomen and pelvis. Lesion detection and characterization using DWI largely depends on the increased cellularity of solid or cystic lesions compared with the surrounding tissue. This increased cellularity leads results in restricted diffusion as indicated by reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Low pretreatment ADC values of several malignancies have been shown to be predictive of better outcome. DWI can assess response to systemic or regional treatment of cancer at a cellular level and will therefore detect successful treatment earlier than anatomical measures. In this review, we provide a brief technical overview of DWI, discuss quantitative image analysis approaches, and review studies which have used DWI for the purpose of detection and characterization of malignancies as well as the early prediction of treatment response.
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ABSTRACT: Assessment of the response to treatment of metastases is crucial in daily oncological practice and clinical trials. For soft tissue metastases, this is done using computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using validated response evaluation criteria. Bone metastases, which frequently represent the only site of metastases, are an exception in response assessment systems, because of the nature of the fixed bony defects, their complexity, which ranges from sclerotic to osteolytic and because of the lack of sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution of the previously available bone imaging methods, mainly bone scintigraphy. Techniques such as MRI and PET are able to detect the early infiltration of the bone marrow by cancer, and to quantify this infiltration using morphologic images, quantitative parameters and functional approaches. This paper highlights the most recent developments of MRI and PET, showing how they enable early detection of bone lesions and monitoring of their response. It reviews current knowledge, puts the different techniques into perspective, in terms of indications, strengths, weaknesses and complementarity, and finally proposes recommendations for the choice of the most adequate imaging technique.European Journal of Cancer 10/2014; 50(15). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.07.002 · 4.82 Impact Factor
Article: Functional imaging in lung cancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lung cancer represents an increasingly frequent cancer diagnosis worldwide. An increasing awareness on smoking cessation as an important mean to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality, an increasing number of therapy options and a steady focus on early diagnosis and adequate staging have resulted in a modestly improved survival. For early diagnosis and precise staging, imaging, especially positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT), plays an important role. Other functional imaging modalities such as dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) have demonstrated promising results within this field. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a brief and balanced introduction to these three functional imaging modalities and their current or potential application in the care of patients with lung cancer.Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 12/2013; 34(5). DOI:10.1111/cpf.12104 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the primary imaging test for the staging and follow-up of most malignancies that originate outside of the central nervous system. Technical advances in this imaging technique have led to significant improvement in the detection of metastatic disease to the liver. An unintended by-product of this improving diagnostic acumen is the discovery of incidental hepatic lesions in oncology patients that in the past remained undetected. These ubiquitous, incidentally identified hepatic lesions have created a management dilemma for both clinicians and radiologists: are these lesions benign or do they represent metastases? Naturally, the answer to this question has profound prognostic and therapeutic implications. In this review, guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management of some of the more common hepatic incidental lesions detected in patients with extrahepatic malignancies are presented.Cancer Imaging 09/2012; 12(2):373-84. DOI:10.1102/1470-7330.2012.9028 · 1.29 Impact Factor