Invasion of the hepatic artery is a crucial predictor of poor outcomes in gallbladder carcinoma.
ABSTRACT In the present study we undertook a retrospective analysis of gallbladder carcinoma to assess whether histologically determined hepatic artery (HA) invasion and portal vein (PV) invasion can be considered prognostic factors.
Seventy-one patients who had undergone radical resection for gallbladder carcinoma between 1995 and 2008 at University of Tsukuba were selected from the database for analysis. Patients who required extended surgery for para-aortic lymph node metastasis were also included. Correlation between invasion of the HA and the PV and prognosis and other clinicopathologic factors were analyzed.
There were two postoperative deaths among the 71 patients. Pathological invasion of the HA was confirmed in 16 (22.5%) cases and PV invasion was confirmed in 15 patients. Patients with invasion of the HA had a significantly poorer prognosis than those without HA invasion (P < 0.0001). Additionally, in univariate analysis, gender (male), positive para-aortic lymph node metastasis, PV invasion, and HA invasion were identified as significant poor prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, only HA invasion was an independent prognostic factor (Odds Ratio 0.323; P = 0.029).
Invasion of the HA is a crucial prognostic factor in patients with gallbladder carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: At present, surgical treatment is the only curative option for gallbladder (GB) cancer. Many efforts therefore have been made to improve resectability and the survival rate. However, GB cancer has a low incidence, and no randomized, controlled trials have been conducted to establish the optimal treatment modalities. The present guidelines include recent recommendations based on current understanding and highlight controversial issues that require further research. For T1a GB cancer, the optimal treatment modality is simple cholecystectomy, which can be carried out as either a laparotomy or a laparoscopic surgery. For T1b GB cancer, either simple or an extended cholecystectomy is appropriate. An extended cholecystectomy is generally recommended for patients with GB cancer at stage T2 or above. In extended cholecystectomy, a wedge resection of the GB bed or a segmentectomy IVb/V can be performed and the optimal extent of lymph node dissection should include the cystic duct lymph node, the common bile duct lymph node, the lymph nodes around the hepatoduodenal ligament (the hepatic artery and portal vein lymph nodes), and the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal lymph node. Depending on patient status and disease severity, surgeons may decide to perform palliative surgeries.Journal of Korean Medical Science 10/2014; 29(10):1333-1340. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Survival after surgery for gallbladder cancer is generally poor. A number of inflammation-based prognostic scores have been established to help predict survival after surgery for several types of cancer. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the utility of two inflammation-based prognostic scores, the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), for predicting survival in patients with gallbladder cancer after surgery with curative intent. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 85 patients with histologically confirmed, resectable gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), who were to receive curative surgery in our department. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the variables to overall survival (OS). A significant difference was detected in OS in patients with low and high GPS and NLR scores. Univariate analyses using clinicopathological characteristics revealed that tumor differentiation; tumor invasion; lymph node metastasis; tumor, node, metastasis classification system stage; positive margin status; combined common bile duct resection; serum levels of C-reactive protein, albumin, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA125; white blood cell count; and GPS and NLR were all associated with OS. Among these characteristics, multivariate analysis demonstrated that a high GPS was independently associated with poorer OS, together with tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and positive margin status. GPS is superior to NLR with respect to its prognostic value for patients with GBC after surgery with curative intent. GPS is not only associated with tumor progression but is also an independent marker of poor prognosis.Annals of Surgical Oncology 10/2013; · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The 5-year survival of patients with gallbladder cancer remains low. However, patients can be stratified into prognostic categories based on established factors such as T, N, and R status. New concepts regarding prognostic significance of lymph node disease, the importance of residual gallbladder fossa disease, and the gravity of presentation with jaundice are reviewed. In addition, a number of new prognostic factors proposed in recent years are considered. METHODS: PubMed was searched for "gallbladder cancer" with builder "date-completion" 2008 to present. A total of 1,490 articles were screened from which 168 were retrieved. From this, 40 articles specifically related to prognosis form the basis for this review. DISCUSSION: Key factors of prognostic significance remain T and N stage and R0 resection. Residual disease either in the gallbladder fossa, lymph nodes, or cystic duct margin dictates hepatectomy, lymphadenectomy and bile duct resection, respectively. Adequate lymphadenectomy requires removal of six nodes, and hepatectomy must be sufficient to achieve R0. Subtleties regarding lymph node ratio, significance of pathological features such as dedifferentiation, and budding may hold value for stratifying patients with early stage disease, but require further investigation.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor