Article

ETS-1 protein regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in human ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV-3.

Cell Biology and Physiology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 4 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 01/2012; 287(18):15001-15. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.284034
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of extracellular matrix is a crucial event for invasion and metastasis of malignant cells. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are regulated by different cytokines and growth factors. VEGF, a potent angiogenic cytokine, induces invasion of ovarian cancer cells through activation of MMPs. Here, we demonstrate that invasion and scattering in SKOV-3 cells were induced by VEGF through the activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. VEGF induced the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13 and hence regulated the metastasis of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells, and the activities of these MMPs were reduced after inhibition of PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK pathways. Interestingly, VEGF induced expression of ETS-1 factor, an important trans-regulator of different MMP genes. ETS-1 bound to both MMP-9 and MMP-13 promoters. Furthermore, VEGF acted through its receptor to perform the said functions. In addition, VEGF-induced MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression and in vitro cell invasion were significantly reduced after knockdown of ETS-1 gene. Again, VEGF-induced MMP-9 and MMP-13 promoter activities were down-regulated in ETS-1 siRNA-transfected cells. VEGF enriched ETS-1 in the nuclear fraction in a dose-dependent manner. VEGF-induced expression of ETS-1 and its nuclear localization were blocked by specific inhibitors of the PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways. Therefore, based on these observations, it is hypothesized that the activation of PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK by VEGF results in ETS-1 gene expression, which activates MMP-9 and MMP-13, leading to the invasion and scattering of SKOV-3 cells. The study provides a mechanistic insight into the prometastatic functions of VEGF-induced expression of relevant MMPs.

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