ETS-1 protein regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in human ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV-3.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of extracellular matrix is a crucial event for invasion and metastasis of malignant cells. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are regulated by different cytokines and growth factors. VEGF, a potent angiogenic cytokine, induces invasion of ovarian cancer cells through activation of MMPs. Here, we demonstrate that invasion and scattering in SKOV-3 cells were induced by VEGF through the activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. VEGF induced the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13 and hence regulated the metastasis of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells, and the activities of these MMPs were reduced after inhibition of PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK pathways. Interestingly, VEGF induced expression of ETS-1 factor, an important trans-regulator of different MMP genes. ETS-1 bound to both MMP-9 and MMP-13 promoters. Furthermore, VEGF acted through its receptor to perform the said functions. In addition, VEGF-induced MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression and in vitro cell invasion were significantly reduced after knockdown of ETS-1 gene. Again, VEGF-induced MMP-9 and MMP-13 promoter activities were down-regulated in ETS-1 siRNA-transfected cells. VEGF enriched ETS-1 in the nuclear fraction in a dose-dependent manner. VEGF-induced expression of ETS-1 and its nuclear localization were blocked by specific inhibitors of the PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways. Therefore, based on these observations, it is hypothesized that the activation of PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK by VEGF results in ETS-1 gene expression, which activates MMP-9 and MMP-13, leading to the invasion and scattering of SKOV-3 cells. The study provides a mechanistic insight into the prometastatic functions of VEGF-induced expression of relevant MMPs.
- SourceAvailable from: Atsuo Amano
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- "found that SAS cells stimulated with P. gingivalis exhibited sustained activation of Ets1 and phosphorylation of HSP27, while proMMP9 production was inhibited by knockdown of Ets1 or HSP27. Our findings are consistent with several previous reports, as proMMP9 expression was shown to be regulated by ERK1/2-Ets1 and p38/ HSP27 in a number of cell lines (Hansen et al., 2001; Liu et al., 2005; Ghosh et al., 2012), and knockdown of ERK1/2 and Ets1 decreased proMMP9 mRNA expression in response to TGFβ1 (Liu et al., 2005). Moreover, cancer cell migration and invasion were reported to be inhibited by knockdown of Ets1 and HSP27 (Hahne et al., 2005; Shin et al., 2005), and p38 deficiency inhibited HSP27 and MMP9 expression (Kumar et al., 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Recent epidemiological studies have revealed a significant association between periodontitis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is implicated in the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. We examined the involvement of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, in OSCC invasion through induced expression of proMMP and its activation. proMMP9 was continuously secreted from carcinoma SAS cells, while P. gingivalis infection increased proenzyme expression and subsequently processed it to active MMP9 in culture supernatant, which enhanced cellular invasion. In contrast, Fusobacterium nucleatum, another periodontal organism, failed to demonstrate such activities. The effects of P. gingivalis were observed with highly invasive cells, but not with the low invasive type. P. gingivalis also stimulated proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and enhanced proMMP9 expression, which promoted cellular invasion. P. gingivalis mutants deficient in gingipain proteases failed to activate MMP9. Infected SAS cells exhibited activation of ERK1/2, p38, and NF-kB, and their inhibitors diminished both proMMP9-overexpression and cellular invasion. Together, our results show that P. gingivalis activates the ERK1/2-Ets1, p38/HSP27, and PAR2/NFκB pathways to induce proMMP9 expression, after which the proenzyme is activated by gingipains to promote cellular invasion of OSCC cell lines. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of progression and metastasis of OSCC associated with periodontitis.Cellular Microbiology 09/2013; DOI:10.1111/cmi.12211 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that the SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) plays a significant role in tumorigenesis in prostate, breast, colon, and ovarian cancer. However, there are no in vivo studies with respect to the role of SPDEF in tumor metastasis. The present study examined the effects of SPDEF on tumor cell metastasis using prostate tumor cells as a model. Utilizing two experimental metastasis models, we demonstrate that SPDEF inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro and acts a tumor metastasis suppressor in vivo. Using stable expression of SPDEF in PC3-Luc cells and shRNA-mediated knockdown of SPDEF in LNCaP-Luc cells, we demonstrate for the first time that SPDEF diminished the ability of disseminated tumors cells to survive at secondary sites and establish micrometastases. These effects on tumor metastasis were not a result of the effect of SPDEF on cell growth as SPDEF expression had no effect on cell growth in vitro or subcutaneous tumor xenograft-growth in vivo. Transcriptional analysis of several genes associated with tumor metastasis, invasion, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition demonstrated that SPDEF expression selectively down-regulated MMP9 and MMP13 in prostate cancer cells. Further analysis indicated that forced MMP9 or MMP13 expression rescued the invasive phenotype in SPDEF expressing PC3 cells in vitro, suggesting that the effects of SPDEF on tumor invasion are mediated, in part, through the suppression of MMP9 and MMP13 expression. These results demonstrate for the first time, in any system, that SPDEF functions as a tumor metastasis suppressor in vivo.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2012; 287(35):29968-78. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.379396 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a highly malignant tumor, originating from mesothelial cells of the serous cavities. In mesothelioma the expression of syndecan-1 correlates to epithelioid morphology and inhibition of growth and migration. Our previous data suggest a complex role of syndecan-1 in mesothelioma cell proliferation although the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely elucidated. The aim of this study is therefore to disclose critical genes and pathways affected by syndecan-1 in mesothelioma; in order to better understand its importance for tumor cell growth and proliferation. We modulated the expression of syndecan-1 in a human mesothelioma cell line via both overexpression and silencing, and followed the transcriptomic responses with microarray analysis. To project the transcriptome analysis on the full-dimensional picture of cellular regulation, we applied pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and a novel method of network enrichment analysis (NEA) which elucidated signaling relations between differentially expressed genes and pathways acting via various molecular mechanisms. Syndecan-1 overexpression had profound effects on genes involved in regulation of cell growth, cell cycle progression, adhesion, migration and extracellular matrix organization. In particular, expression of several growth factors, interleukins, and enzymes of importance for heparan sulfate sulfation pattern, extracellular matrix proteins and proteoglycans were significantly altered. Syndecan-1 silencing had less powerful effect on the transcriptome compared to overexpression, which can be explained by the already low initial syndecan-1 level of these cells. Nevertheless, 14 genes showed response to both up- and downregulation of syndecan-1. The "cytokine - cytokine-receptor interaction", the TGF-β, EGF, VEGF and ERK/MAPK pathways were enriched in both experimental settings. Most strikingly, nearly all analyzed pathways related to cell cycle were enriched after syndecan-1 silencing and depleted after syndecan-1 overexpression. Syndecan-1 regulates proliferation in a highly complex way, although the exact contribution of the altered pathways necessitates further functional studies.PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e48091. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0048091 · 3.53 Impact Factor