Temperature-sensitive PSII and promiscuous PSI as a possible solution for sustainable photosynthetic hydrogen production.
ABSTRACT Sustainable hydrogen production in cyanobacteria becomes feasible as a result of our recent studies of the structure of photosystem I encoding operon in a marine phage. We demonstrated that the fused PsaJF subunit from the phage, substituted for the two separate subunits in Synechocystis, enabled the mutated PSI to accept electrons from additional electron donors such as respiratory cytochromes. In this way, a type of photorespiration was created in which the cell consumes organic material through respiratory processes and PSI serves as a terminal electron acceptor, substituting for cytochrome oxidase. We designed a hydrogen-producing bioreactor in which this type of photorespiration could utilize the organic material of the cell as an electron source for H(2) production. We propose, in parallel, to engineer cyanobacterial and/or algal strains with a temperature-sensitive PSII and enhanced respiration rates to achieve efficient and sustainable hydrogen production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.
- SourceAvailable from: Nathan Nelson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent structural determinations and metagenomic studies shed light on the evolution of photosystem I (PSI) from the homodimeric reaction centre of primitive bacteria to plant PSI at the top of the evolutionary development. The evolutionary scenario of over 3.5 billion years reveals an increase in the complexity of PSI. This phenomenon of ever-increasing complexity is common to all evolutionary processes that in their advanced stages are highly dependent on fine-tuning of regulatory processes. On the other hand, the recently discovered virus-encoded PSI complexes contain a minimal number of subunits. This may reflect the unique selection scenarios associated with viral replication. It may be beneficial for future engineering of productive processes to utilize 'primitive' complexes that disregard the cellular regulatory processes and to avoid those regulatory constraints when our goal is to divert the process from its original route. In this article, we discuss the evolutionary forces that act on viral reaction centres and the role of the virus-carried photosynthetic genes in the evolution of photosynthesis.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 12/2012; 367(1608):3400-5. · 6.23 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Photosynthetic organisms and isolated photosystems are of interest for technical applications. In nature, photosynthetic electron transport has to work efficiently in contrasting environments such as shade and full sunlight at noon. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated on many levels, starting with the energy transfer processes in antenna and ending with how reducing power is ultimately partitioned. This review starts by explaining how light energy can be dissipated or distributed by the various mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching, including thermal dissipation and state transitions, and how these processes influence photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII). Furthermore, we will highlight the importance of the various alternative electron transport pathways, including the use of oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and cyclic flow around photosystem I, the latter which seem particularly relevant to photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI). The control of excitation pressure in combination with the partitioning of reducing power influences the light-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in PSII and in PSI, which may be a very important consideration to any artificial photosynthetic system or technical device using photosynthetic organisms.Current Protein and Peptide Science 03/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hydrogen production by water splitting may be an appealing solution for future energy needs. To evolve hydrogen efficiently in a sustainable manner, it is necessary first to synthesize what we may call a 'super catalyst' for water oxidation, which is the more challenging half reaction of water splitting. An efficient system for water oxidation exists in the water oxidizing complex in cyanobacteria, algae and plants; further, recently published data on the Manganese-calcium cluster have provided details on the mechanism and structure of the water oxidizing complex. Here, we have briefly reviewed the characteristics of the natural system from the standpoint of what we could learn from it to produce an efficient artificial system. In short, to design an efficient water oxidizing complex for artificial photosynthesis, we must learn and use wisely the knowledge about water oxidation and the water oxidizing complex in the natural system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2012; 1817(8):1110-21. · 4.66 Impact Factor