Article

Hippocampal expression of myelin-associated inhibitors is induced with age-related cognitive decline and correlates with deficits of spatial learning and memory.

Department of Pharmacology, R130, Hershey Center for Applied Research, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.
Journal of Neurochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.24). 01/2012; 121(1):77-98. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07671.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Impairment of cognitive functions including hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory affects nearly half of the aged population. Age-related cognitive decline is associated with synaptic dysfunction that occurs in the absence of neuronal cell loss, suggesting that impaired neuronal signaling and plasticity may underlie age-related deficits of cognitive function. Expression of myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) of synaptic plasticity, including the ligands myelin-associated glycoprotein, neurite outgrowth inhibitor A, and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein, and their common receptor, Nogo-66 receptor, was examined in hippocampal synaptosomes and Cornu ammonis area (CA)1, CA3 and dentate gyrus subregions derived from adult (12-13 months) and aged (26-28 months) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats. Rats were behaviorally phenotyped by Morris water maze testing and classified as aged cognitively intact (n = 7-8) or aged cognitively impaired (n = 7-10) relative to adults (n = 5-7). MAI protein expression was induced in cognitively impaired, but not cognitively intact, aged rats and correlated with cognitive performance in individual rats. Immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated that up-regulation of MAIs occurs, in part, in hippocampal neuronal axons and somata. While a number of pathways and processes are altered with brain aging, we report a coordinated induction of myelin-associated inhibitors of functional and structural plasticity only in cognitively impaired aged rats. Induction of MAIs may decrease stimulus-induced synaptic strengthening and structural remodeling, ultimately impairing synaptic mechanisms of spatial learning and memory and resulting in cognitive decline.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Willard M Freeman, Jun 24, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
105 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: When central nervous system axons are injured, regeneration is partly inhibited by myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs). Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the rat, pharmacological neutralisation of the MAIs Nogo-A and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) resulted in improved functional outcome. In contrast, genetic or pharmacological neutralization of the MAI receptors Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) or paired-immunoglobulin like receptor-B (PirB) showed an unaltered or impaired outcome following TBI in the mouse. The aim of the present study was thus to evaluate the MAI expression levels following TBI in mice. Methods: Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure total RNA isolated from brains of young adult male C57BL/6 mice at one, three or seven days following controlled cortical impact TBI or sham injury. Hippocampal and neocortical tissue ipsi- and contralateral to the injury was analyzed for Nogo-A, oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), MAG, and the MAI receptors PirB and NgR1, including its co-receptor Lingo1. Results: Compared to sham-injured controls, PirB neocortical expression was significantly upregulated at one day and NgR1 expression downregulated at seven days post-TBI. In the hippocampus, transcriptional upregulation was observed in Nogo-A (one day), MAG and PirB at seven days post-injury. In contrast, the hippocampal transcripts of NgR1 and Lingo1 were decreased at seven days post-injury. The expression of OMgp was unaltered at all time points post-injury. Conclusion: These results suggest that early dynamic changes in MAI gene expression occur following TBI in the mouse, particularly in the hippocampus, which may play an inhibitory role for post-injury regeneration and plasticity.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014; 32(5). DOI:10.3233/RNN-140419 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hippocampus undergoes changes with aging that impact neuronal function, such as synapse loss and altered neurotransmitter release. Nearly half of the aged population also develops deficits in spatial learning and memory. To identify age-related hippocampal changes that may contribute to cognitive decline, transcriptomic analysis of synaptosome preparations from adult (12 months) and aged (28 months) Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats assessed for spatial learning and memory was performed. Bioinformatic analysis identified the MHCI pathway as significantly upregulated with aging. Age-related increases in mRNAs encoding the MHCI genes RT1-A1, RT1-A2, and RT1-A3 were confirmed by qPCR in synaptosomes and in CA1 and CA3 dissections. Elevated levels of the MHCI cofactor (B2m), antigen-loading components (Tap1, Tap2, Tapbp), and two known MHCI receptors (PirB, Klra2) were also confirmed. Protein expression of MHCI was elevated with aging in synaptosomes, CA1, and DG, while PirB protein expression was induced in both CA1 and DG. MHCI expression was localized to microglia and neuronal excitatory postsynaptic densities, and PirB was localized to neuronal somata, axons, and dendrites. Induction of the MHCI antigen processing and presentation pathway in hippocampal neurons and glia may contribute to age-related hippocampal dysfunction by increasing neuroimmune signaling or altering synaptic homeostasis.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 05/2012; 48(1):111-26. DOI:10.1007/s12031-012-9783-8 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive decline presents a therapeutic challenge for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease characterized by recurrent autoimmune demyelination and by progressive CNS degeneration. Glatiramer acetate (GA, also known as Copolymer 1, Cop-1, or Copaxone), commonly used to treat MS, reduces the frequency of relapses; it has both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, clinical trials have not definitively shown that GA improves cognitive impairment during MS. Using an in vivo animal model of autoimmune demyelination, i.e., relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we tested short-term memory in EAE mice (EAE), in EAE mice treated with GA for 10 days starting at the time of immunization (EAE + GA), and in age-matched healthy, naïve mice (Naïve). Short-term memory was assessed using the cross-maze test at 10, 20, and 30 days post-immunization (d.p.i.); data were analyzed at each time point and over time. At 10 d.p.i., EAE and EAE + GA mice had better memory function than Naïve mice. However, at the later time points, EAE mice had a steep negative slope of memory function (indicating decline), whereas EAE + GA mice had a flatter, less-negative slope of memory function. Notably, the memory function of EAE mice significantly decreased over time compared with that of Naïve mice, indicating that EAE had a negative impact on cognitive ability. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between the slopes of memory function in mice with EAE treated with GA versus Naïve mice, which revealed effective, albeit partial, protection by GA treatment against progressive memory decline during EAE disease. Of particular interest, although EAE mice had memory decline over 30 d.p.i., their clinical disease scores improved during that time. Thus, our results suggest that EAE mice had a significant progressive memory decline and that GA, administered at the time of immunization, partially guards against rapid memory decline.
    Neurochemical Research 12/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1007/s11064-014-1491-z · 2.55 Impact Factor